Budget recordings of Alfred Scholz
There is a subset of "classical" releases which are credited to performers who have never been seen or heard in a live performance. Many of these performers are pseudonyms. Why would a release be published under a pseudonym? It could be because the performer has a restrictive contract with a different record label. It could be because the performance has been "borrowed" from its owner. Or perhaps the pseudonym is considered more marketable: for example the “well-known” pianist M. Bergerich. In the case of an ensemble, it could be a "scratch" ensemble brought togther just for the recording, and which does not otherwise have a name.
The most prolific producer of such budget recordings was Alfred Scholz. Scholz sometimes used his own name, sometimes made-up names, and sometimes the names of real people were given credit for performances which were not theirs.
It is not correct to assume any correspondence between the real and fictitious performers - names were mixed and matched liberally. Scholz sold the same recordings to different labels as different artists, and there are examples in MBz of the same performance being credited in two or more distinct ways.
For example, Fake conductors and the Symphonie Fantastique describes how someone collected 170 differently credited recordings of the work, but on studying them found he only had 162 distinct performances.
The following lists are of artists known to be used by Scholz:
Real artists, names used (possibly) fraudulently
A few of these may in fact be the actual artists behind the music. In many cases the names are simply appropriated.
- Hans Swarovsky. Scholz's conducting professor, a real person with some genuine performances of his own on record, his name was also used by Scholz on recordings which he did not conduct.
- Hans Zanotelli. Another real person whose name was used.
- Hanspeter Gmür
- Bystrík Režucha. Conductor of the Slovenská filharmónia
- Martin Sieghart
- Zdeněk Košler. Conductor of the Česká filharmonie.
- Milan Horvat. Conductor of the Radio-Symphonieorchester Wien
- János Sándor
- Nürnberger Symphoniker
- London Festival Orchestra. Decca studio orchestra from the 1950s, often credited alongside Henry Adolph and Alberto Lizzio (see below). As their history prior to the Ross Pople era (1980s) is a little fuzzy, and given the quantity of fictitious artist names that follow the pattern “(something) Festival Orchestra” this may be at least semi-legitimate.
- Münchener Kammerorchester
- Münchner Philharmoniker
- Philharmonia Orchestra
- Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
- Camerata Salzburg
- Slovenská filharmónia. Not to be confused with the fictitious Philharmonia Slovenska.
- Stuttgarter Kammerorchester
- Radio-Symphonieorchester Wien
- Orchestre radio-symphonique de Paris
- Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra
- Symfonický orchester Slovenského rozhlasu
- Eberhard Kraus (organist)
- Kurt Redel (conductor)
- Mozarteumorchester Salzburg
- Dubravka Tomšič (pianist)
- Anton Nanut (conductor)
- Simfonični orkester RTV Slovenija
- Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin
- Liszt Ferenc Kamarazenekar
- István Székely (pianist)
- Wiener Mozart-Ensemble
- Silvia Čápová (pianist)
- Zagrebački solisti
- Enrique Bátiz (conductor)
- Norman Shetler (conductor)
- Wiener Johann Strauss Orchester
- Festivalový orchestr Praha - Does not seem to be fictional.
- Amsterdam Symphony Orchestra
- Frigyes Sándor (conductor)
- Liszt Ferenc Kamarazenekar
Some of these are possibly real. More research is needed.
- Henry Adolph.
- Cesare Cantieri.
- Eugen Duvier. Probably - needs further investigation.
- Alberto Lizzio. Wikipedia states  that Scholz wrote a fictitious biography stating that this was his father.
- Carlo Pantelli. Again, no online photos or bios, recordings mostly with fictitious orchestra Philharmonia Slavonica
- Laurence Siegel.
- Serge Tchaikov.
- Denis Zsoltay.
- Hymisher Greenburg
- Simon Addison
- Francesco Macci
- Alexander von Pitamic
- Takao Matsumo
- Frank Shipway
- Carl Michalski
- Julian Armstrong
- Loic Bertrand
- Pavel Urbanek
- Georg Hlinka
- Jan Zybnovsky
- Sven Bengtson
- Peter Wohlert
- Herbert Kraus
- Heribert Münchner
- Pierre Carbidier
- Luigi Varese
- Paul Kantschieder
- Joseph Francek
- Peter Stern
- Herbert Fleischmann
- Alfred Gehardt
- Pierre Narrato
- Süddeutsche Philharmonie (South German Philharmonic). This "was a short-lived pick-up ensemble assembled by Scholz from members of the Czech Philharmonic in Prague and the Bamberg Symphony around 1968".
- Norddeutsche Philharmonie. You can probably see the pattern here.
- Philharmonia Slavonica. According to one unsourced Wikipedia article, “the performances attributed to them are often by the Austrian Radio (ORF) Orchestra."
- Camerata Romana
- The European Philharmonic Orchestra 
- The English Philharmonic Orchestra
- Musici di San Marco
- Tokyo Festival Orchestra
- Mozart Festival Orchestra
- Great Festival Orchestra
- London Festival Chorus
- Great Festival Chorus
- “Pro Arte Orchester” (similarly-named to Pro Arte Munich)
- Baroque Festival Orchestra
- French National Radio Orchestra (compare “Orchestre National de France” / “French National Radio Broadcasting Orchestra”)
- Babelsberg Symphony Orchestra (compare “Deutsches Filmorchester Babelsberg/German Film Orchestra Babelsberg)
- Philharmonic Ensemble Pro Musica
- Royal Promenade Orchestra
- Orchestre de (du) Festival Belgique
- M. Bergerich (piano). Apparently drawing on the name recognition of Martha Argerich
- Dieter Goldmann (piano). I can't find any biographical information about him, and he is a frequent performer on Scholz's recordings.
- Mario-Ratko Delorko (piano). Ratko Delorko is a real pianist, but I can’t find any reliable source for him having an omitted “Mario-” in his first name. This artist should probably be split (or the genuine Ratko Delorko should be added)
- Michael Rosengarten (piano)
- Maria Novak (piano)
- René Nuton (organ)
- Kamil Sreter (bassoon, horn)
- Sabine Lenz (bassoon)
- Björn Lundgren (piano)
- Daniel Gerard (piano)
- Svetlana Stanceva (piano)
- Vilmos Fischer (piano)
- Angela Giulini (piano)
- Alexander Permovalsky (violin)
- Peter Jacovic (flute)
- Kurt Berger (flute)
- Ricardo Casinelli (tenor vocals)
What is the best way to record these performances in the database? In particular, where a single performance, with identical acoustic fingerprint, is credited to two or more sets of performers, how should they be credited?
See the Talk page.
- Pseudonyms: Alfred Scholz and the South German Philharmonic, John F. Berky, March 12, 2003 (revised January, 2009)
- Wikipedia article for Alberto Lizzio and before cleanup
- Wikipedia article on the Capriccio Espagnole
- Tristan and Isolde discography
- Naxos bio of Hans Swarovsky
- rec.music.classical.recordings for some relevant discussions
- Anton Bruckner - Discographic Horrors
- Hunting down the undead ghost of classical conductor George Richter