|Status: This page describes an active style guideline proposal and is not official.|
Trac ticket # 4426
- CSG for Works:
|Status: Everything below this point is in need of cleanup for CSGv2|
CSG for Works is intended to provide a framework for titling classical compositions which lack clearly defined titles; it is not intended to be used as a reason to retitle a composition which already has a functional Artist Intent title.
If a work already has been given a specific title by the composer, such as "Part 1: IBM 1401 Processing Unit", then Artist Intent is the superior style principle, and thus the work would not be retitled using CSG for Works. This applies even if the composition title provided by the composer seems generic, e.g., "Music for 18 Musicians: Section XI", so long as Artist Intent for the composition's title is indicated, rather than generic description of the composition, e.g., "Symphony in D".
Combined Artist Intent and CSG for Works
Artist Intent titles and CSG for Works may also be combined, if needed. Steve Reich's 'Music for 18 Musicians' already provides sufficient ordering information in the movement titles such that CSG for Works is unneeded. Comparatively, Hector Berlioz' 'Symphonie fantastique' does provide a title for the overall composition ('Episode de la vie d'un artiste... en cinq partes'), a special form name ('Symphonie fantastique'), as well as titles for the movements ('Rêveries - Passions', 'Scène aux champs', etc.). However, a work title would provide insufficient information to determine that movement's (or composition's) place within the overall composition (or opus). Therefore, the correct CSGv2 title would be a combination of Artist Intent title and CSG for Works title.
- Incorrect: Artist Intent title
- Episode de la vie d'un artiste... en cinq partes: Symphonie fantastique: Scène aux champs
- Incorrect: CSG for Works title
- Symphony for orchestra in C major and minor, Op. 14 "Episode de la vie d'un artiste... en cinq partes", III. Scène aux champs
- Correct: True and CSG for Works combined title
- Symphonie fantastique in C major and minor, Op. 14 "Episode de la vie d'un artiste... en cinq partes": III. Scène aux champs
If it is questionable as to whether a composition really does have an Artist Intent title, then the CSG for Works title should be given preference. In the above case, 'Symphony for orchestra' would be rather redundant to 'Symphonie fantastique', as well as counter to Artist Intent for this unique special work form name.
Comparatively, Britten's 'Sinfonia da Requiem' provides only generic composition type identification, e.g., a requiem symphony, and thus the CSG for Works title, and not a mixed title, should be used.
The primary concern of CSGv2 is consistency. If a significant majority of a composer's œuvre is generically titled, and thus has CSG for Works titles, then it may be preferable that even works with Artist Intent titles be assigned CSG for Works titles (or combined Artist Intent and CSG for Works titles) rather than only using Artist Intent titles for those works.
For example, the vast majority of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's compositions are generically titled. However, some few songs have distinct titles. In such cases, using only the Artist Intent title would make those songs have titles inconsistent with the remainder of Mozart's œuvre, and the CSG for Works title would be more preferable for the songs
- Inconsistent title
- Liebes Manndel, wo ist's Bandel?
- Combined Artist Intent and CSG for Works title
- Song for 3 Voices, 2 Violins, Viola and Bass in G major, K. 441: Andante sostenuto. (Soprano, Tenor, Bass) "Liebes Manndel, wo ist's Bandel?"
The higher the percentage of an artist's works which are generically titled, the stronger the argument for this type of CSG for Works titling consistency.
The CSG for Works title framework has three distinct sections:
Together, these three sections define the title of a specific work.
- If the work describes a composition with only one movement, the Work and opus framework may be all that is needed.
- If the work is part of a composition with multiple movements, is part of an opus containing multiple compositions, or is part of a composition with only a single movement but requiring additional detail, then the Movement identification framework is also needed.
- If cadenzas, eingängen, or other ornamentation are also needed, then also use the Ornamentation identification framework.
Untouched old stuff
The Movement Framework
Whereas the Work and Opus Framework identifies a work, the Movement Framework identifies the particular movement within a work. This applies even if the work consists only of a single movement.
As the Movement Framework consists of quite a lot of different types of information, it is most simple to conceptualize not as all the individual parts, but as a collection of sub-frameworks. This is how it will be presented below.
|Work Position||Movement Container||Dramatic Position||Form and Tempo||Vocalization||Common Identification||Role Identification|
This sub-framework defines the particular movement of a multi-movement work.
For single-movement works, this area is left unused (though there can be one exception: see item number 3).
The Work Position is always to be indicated using uppercase Roman numerals, never Arabic numerals. Where a movement is split across several sub-movements within the work, not due to physical demands such as multi-tracking, the lowercase Latin alphabet is used, appending one letter for each sub-movment, beginning with the letter "a". Examples:
- Sonata for Violin (or Flute) & Piano No. 5 in B-flat major, K. 10: I.
- Sonata for Violin (or Flute) & Piano No. 5 in B-flat major, K. 10: II.
- Sonata for Violin (or Flute) & Piano No. 5 in B-flat major, K. 10: III.
- Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIIa.
- Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIIb.
- Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIIc.
- Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIId.
A reference list of Roman numbers is available below.
The container sub-framework is used most frequently within ecclesiastical works. This area stores the title of the work-within-a-work that identifies the overall movement to which sub-movements belong. Provide the title of the container, followed by a full colon (:). Examples:
- Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": Ia. Kyrie:
- Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": Ib. Kyrie:
- Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIa. Gloria:
- Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIb. Gloria:
- Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIIa. Credo:
- Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIIb. Credo:
- Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIIc. Credo:
This sub-framework normally is used for operas, though other rarer forms may also have need for these fields. The Dramatic Position section stores the Act, Scene, and/or song number within the overall work. These should always be the Act, Scene, and song number as assigned within the original work. If you have a release which reorders scenes, uses insert arias, or makes other changes to the normal order, do not rename the fields within this section; the original running order indications should be preserved. This also means that, when appendix works are inserted within the work, the Appendix indication should remain.
Act and Scene are always to be indicated using uppercased Roman numerals. The sole exception is for "Scene Ultima".
"Act" and "Scene" should be translated into the correct word for the CSG language style being used.
Song numbers should always be indicated using Arabic numerals. The numbers used should always be indicated using Arabic numerals and not spelled out.
"No." is always to be used, untranslated, and never "Nr.", "#", "Number", "N°", etc.
When multiple Acts or Scenes are spanned within the same (sub)movement, they ought to be indicated using an ASCII hyphen separated by one ASCII space on either side ( - ).
- [ Appendix ]. [ Act # ], [ Scene # ]. No. #
In situations where there is an Act, but there is not a Scene, the period ought to be used, omitting the comma:
- [ Appendix ]. [ Act # ]. No. #
- Ascanio in Alba, K. 111: Act I, Scene IV
- Così fan tutte ossia La scuola degli amanti, K. *584: Appendix. Act. I, Scene XI No. 15
- Die Entführung aus dem Serail, K. 384: Appendix.
- Il sogno di Scipione, K. 126: Act I. No. 1
- L'oca del Cairo, K. 422: Scene III. No. 1
- La finta semplice, K. 46a / KV 51: Act I, Scene I. No. 1
- Lucio Silla, K. 135: Act III, Scene Ultima
A reference list of Roman numbers is available below.
Form and Tempo
|Form and Tempo|
This sub-framework stores the form and tempo of a movement.
The Form ought to always have the first word capitalized, with any remaining words capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the form.
Though traditionally Italian tempos have been used, tempos can be any many languages, including French, German, and English. Tempos ought to always have the first word capitalized with any remaining words in a single tempo indication should be capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the tempo. If there is no composer specified tempo for a work, use "(no tempo indication)" without the quotation marks to indicate this absence.
The most basic structure of this sub-framework is:
- [ Form ]. [ Tempo ]
- Concerto for Piano No. 13 in C major, K. 387b / KV 415: II. Andante
- Concerto for Piano No. 13 in C major, K. 387b / KV 415: III. Rondeau. Allegro
- Concerto for Bassoon in B-flat major, K. 186e / KV 191: III. Rondeau. Tempo di menuetto
However, many movements change tempo in the middle of the movement, sometimes multiple times. To indicate a tempo change, add the additional tempo(s) after the initial tempo, and connect them using an ASCII hyphen separated by one ASCII space on either side ( - ). Additional tempos ought to be lowercased.
- [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] - [ tempo ]
- Fugue for Piano in C major, K. 383a / 394: II. Fugue. Andante maestoso - adagio
- Recitative for Tenor and Orchestra in C major, K. 33i / KV 36: Allegro maestoso - andante - maestoso - allegro - andante - maestoso - andante
In rare cases, you may also have a form which has a common title. This should be capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the title, and contained within standard quotation marks. Note, this position is only for forms with titles, not movement titles.
- [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] - [ tempo ] "[ Form Title ]"
You may then also have multiple forms within a movement. Add each additional form after the tempo of the prior form and connect them using an ampersand separated by one ASCII space on either side ( & ). The first letter of each additional form should be capitalized, with any additional words within the form capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the form.
- [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] - [ tempo ] "[ Form Title ]" & [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] - [ tempo ] "[ Form Title ]"
- 3 German Dances for Orchestra in C major, K. 605 No. 3: German Dance & Trio "Die Schlittenfahrt" & Coda
- Sonata for Piano No. 6 in D major, K. 205b / KV 284 "Dürnitz": III. Tema. Andante & Variations I - X & Variation XI. Adagio cantabile & Variation XII. Allegro
In the extreme case that you also have tempos within forms which themselves also have titles, the tempo title should be capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the title, and contained within standard quotation marks. It is to be positioned immediately following that specific tempo, and, if that tempo is followed by another tempo, positioned prior to the connecting hyphen.
- [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] "[ Tempo Title ]" - [ tempo ] "[ Tempo Title ]" "[ Form Title ]" & [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] "[ Tempo Title ]" - [ tempo ] "[ Tempo Title ]" "[ Form Title ]"
- Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral": IV. Recitative. Presto - allegro ma non troppo - vivace - adagio cantabile - allegro assai - presto "O Freunde" - allegro assai "Freude, schöner Götterfunken" - alla marcia - allegro assai vivace "Froh, wie seine Sonnen" - andante maestoso "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!" - adagio ma non troppo, ma divoto "Ihr, stürzt nieder" - allegro energico, sempre ben marcato "Freude, schöner Götterfunken" - "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!" - allegro ma non tanto "Freude, Tochter aus Elysium!" - prestissimo "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!"
Note that "Recitative and Aria" and "Minuet and Trio" each indicate two sub-movements, not a single form. They ought not to be combined within a single Movement Identification.
Special note on tempos: Please do not 'shorten' them. "Allegro" and "Allegro moderato" are not exactly the same thing.
This sub-framework identifies which voice parts sing within a vocal work.
Each voice part should be proper cased. Where more than one of a voice part is indicated, Arabic numerals are to be used.
Voice parts should be ordered starting with the highest pitch and moving to the lowest. A reference list is available below.
- ([ voicepart1 ], [ voicepart1 ]... )
- Notturno for 3 Voices and 3 Basset Horns in F major, K. 436: Andante. (2 Sopranos, Bass)
- Kyrie for 4 Voices & Organ (in Figured Bass) in D minor, K. 90: (no tempo indication). (Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass)
This sub-framework is used for one of two purposes. It either stores the libretto or it stores the common title of the movement.
To clarify on the movement common title:
- It is not the work's common title. Even in a single-movement song, the title of that song is the work title, not the movement title. The correct position for the work title is described in the Work and Opus Framework.
- It is not the title of only a single form within a multi-form movement. The correct position for such a title is described in the Form and Tempo sub-framework.
- It is not the title of only a single tempo within a multi-form and/or multi-tempo movement. The correct position for such a title is described in the Form and Tempo sub-framework.
- Be sure not to confuse the Container title with the movement title. The same text is occasionally both titles.
The libretto title and the movement title are mutually exclusive. Where a work does have a movement title, the libretto title should be omitted.
- "[ libretto/movement common title ]"
- Movement with a libretto only:
* Mitridate, rè di Ponto, K. 74a / KV 87: Act I, Scene X. No. 8 Cavata. "Se di lauri il crine adorno"
* Canon for 3 Voices in 1 in F major, K. 507: Canon. "Heiterkeit und leichtes Blut"
Movement with a libretto only, where the work also has a title:
* Song for Solo Voice and Basso continuo in F major, K. 47e / K3 43b / KV 53 "An die Freude": Mäßig. "Freude, Königin der Weisen"
* Song for Solo Voice and Piano in D major, K. 125h / KV 148 "Auf die feierliche Johannisloge": Longsam. "O heiliges Band der Freundschaft treuer Brüder"
Single-movement work with a libretto and title, libretto omitted due to movement title:
* Carol for Female Choir and Piano, EHWV 137 "Christkindleins Wiegenlied": (Sopranos, Altos) "O Jesulein zart"
- Note: the above example shows an incomplete CSG listing; the key of the work is unknown and unlisted.
* Kantate, BWV 5 "Wo soll ich fliehen hin": II. Recitativo "Der Sünden Wust hat mich nicht nur befleckt"
Movement with title, container title, and work title:
* Requiem in D minor, K. 626 (Süßmayr completion): II. Kyrie: "Kyrie eleison"
Movement with a title only, Work and Opus framework overridden as there is a composer-assigned work title:
* Pictures at an Exhibition: IIa. Andante. "The Old Castle"
Movement with a title and libretto, non-opera Opera special style in effect due to composer-assigned work title, libretto omitted due to movement title:
* Our Hunting Fathers, Op. 8: IV. "Dance of Death (Hawking for the Partridge)"
This sub-framework identifies which roles perform within a vocal work. Each role name ought to be properly capitalized as a name; non-proper named roles such as Chor, Coro, Choir, Servants, etc ought to be proper cased. Named characters ought to be completely listed before groups (such as "Coro") are listed. Where multiple roles appear, the roles ought to be ordered alphabetically by the first letter of the role name, not the last name: Alice Smith, Fred, Tom Brown, Chorus
- ([ role1, role2, role3... ])
- Così fan tutte ossia La scuola degli amanti, K. 588: Act II, Scene Ultima No. 31 Finale. Allegro molto "Fortunato l'uom che prende" (Despina, Don Alfonso, Dorabella, Fiordiligi, Ferrando, Guglielmo, Chor)
- Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, K. 527: Act I, Scene VII. No. 5 Coro "Giovinette, che fate all'amore" (Zerlina, Coro)
- Le nozze di Figaro, K. 492: Act II, Scene II. Recitativo. "Bravo! che bella voce!" (Cherubino, La Contessa, Susanna)
What about Insert Arias and other dual-catalogued works?
|Work Position||Movement Container||Dramatic Position||Form and Tempo||Vocalization||Common Identification||Role Identification||Dual catalogued works|
In some rare cases, most frequently with insert arias to operas, you will find works which appear within the same catalog twice. These present a sticky problem; if they are listed as the individual catalog listing, they will make the release appear to have an unrelated work inserted within it. In such a case, after the Role Identification sub-framework, append an additional sub-framework for the secondary movement catalog number.
- Collaboratively composed opera, only the single movement bears the catalog number: * Der Stein der Weisen: Act II. Duett. "Nun, liebes Weibchen" (Lubanara, Lubano) [K. 592a / KV 625] Insert aria contained both within the appendix to the opera and separately cataloged: * Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, K. 527: Anhang. Act I, Scene XIV. No. 10a Aria. "Dalla sua pace" (Don Ottavio) [K. 540a]
The Ornamentation Framework
|Work and Opus||Movement||Ornamentation|
Ornamentation presents a difficult problem. These are works specifically intended to be inserted into other works. Therefore, listing them by simply using a / to separate the works would unintentionally present the appearance that there are two separate and distinct works present, not a single work which contains the second work.
Therefore, when Ornamentation, or its sub-types, Cadences, Cadenzas, and Eingänge  appear, the following form is to used:
- ([ Type ]: [ Composer ], [ Catalog or Opus Number ] [ Work Number within the Opus or Catalog Number ], [ Version ])
- (Cadenza: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 626aI/31 / KV 624/9, Version A)
- (Cadence: Ludwig van Beethoven, WoO 58 No. 2)
- (Eingänge: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 626aI/55)
- (Ornamentation Cadenza: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 293e / KV deest)
- (Trumpet and Drum Ornamentation: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 370a / KV deest)
Note that, as ornamentation is by definition interchangeable, only the ornamentation framework will be listed within works lists.
Special Framework under CSG for Da capos and Dal segnos
|Da capo||Segno||Dal segno||Coda|
Da capos come in three common variations:
- Da capo
- Repeat the specified section of the work.
- Da capo al fine
- Repeat the entire work.
- Da capo al segno
- Repeat from the beginning through to the segno sign.
Dal segnos come in two common variations:
- Dal segno al Coda
- Repeat from the segno to the coda sign then play the coda.
- Dal segno al Fine
- Repeat from the segno through to the end of the work.
These are commonly found accompanying Minuets, Trios, and at the end of Serenades.
- How do we handle them? ** ** STUFF **
Special Framework under CSG for Operas
Operas are handled a bit differently than other works. Were they to be formatted using the standard structure, a large amount of redundant information would be added to the title, making it appear cluttered rather than structured.
|Opera Work and Opus Identification|
|Opera Name||Catalog / Opus Number||No. (3)|
Note that this is almost the same as the standard Movement framework, except that most of that framework's structure is unused. The sole structural difference between the Opera Work and Opus framework and the standard Work and Opus framework is that instead of:
- , K. 492 "Le nozze di Figaro"
- , Op. 8 Our Hunting Fathers
this special structure instead creates:
- Le nozze di Figaro, K. 492
- Our Hunting Fathers, Op. 8
Note as well that in the Opera special framework, the opera's name is not enclosed within quotation marks.
It is also worth mentioning again that in the Dramatic Position section of the Movement framework, though "Act" and "Scene" should be translated into the correct word for the CSG language style being used, "No." should not be translated.
Ballet music normally falls well within the normal CSG structure. However, in some rare cases, it can present difficulties. At one time, short ballets were performed between the acts of operas and other similar musical theater presentations. While most of these have not survived, some rare ones have, and continue to be performed and recorded today.
When such a work is encountered, should the normal CSG structure fail to well fit the work, the special Opera style described above may be used in conjunction with the special style for Variations of Other Works, prefixing the music with "Ballet Music for" in the CSG language style being used for the work.
- The listing for the opera would be: * Idomeneo, rè di Creta, K. 366 The listing for the ballet music composed for that opera thus would be: * Ballet Music for Idomeneo, rè di Creta, K. 366, in B-flat major, K. 367: III. Passepied
Special Framework under CSG for Variations within Movements
Variations can potentially lead to needlessly long titles. Rather than include each and every variation, where variations do not have tempo changes, link them with a hyphen ( - ). Example:
- Sonata for Piano No. 6 in D major, K. 205b / KV 284 "Dürnitz": III. Tema. Andante & Variations I - X & Variation XI. Adagio cantabile & Variation XII. Allegro
Work Condition or Version Information
Well-known works will rarely need much, if any additional information to be provided. Some more obscure works, however, may need such information - identifications such as "Appendix", "fragment", "sketch", "original version", "spurious", "doubtful", completion-related information, etc.
Such information may be located in one of two places.
The first has already been described, in the Dramatic Position section, and indicates that a movement of a theatrical work is part of the appendix, not part the normal running of the theatrical work.
|Work and Opus Identification|
|Work Type||No. (1 & 4)||Instrumentation||No. (2)||Key||Scale||Catalog / Opus Number||No. (3 & 4)||(Work Condition / Version Note)||"Common Name"|
The second is not included directly as part of any one framework, as such version or work condition information may apply to an entire work, or it may apply only to a single movement within a work. It may be that the entire work is considered spurious, or it may be that one movement from a work has only survived as a fragment. Whichever is the case, when such information needs to be included, we ask that you keep it as short as possible, include it within parenthesis, and place it between the Numbered work of a Work Catalog / Opus Number section and the Common Name section within the Work and Opus Framework.
Except where names are involved, all such note information should be lowercased.
- Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D major, K. 271i / K2 271a / KV K2271a (doubtful): I. Allegro maestoso
- Sonata for Keyboard with 4 Hands in G major, K. 497a/KV 357/1 (Julius André completion): Allegro
- Suite for Piano in C major, K. 385i / 399 Fr 1782i (5.5 measure fragment): IV. Sarabande
- Symphony No. 3 for Orchestra in E-flat major, K. Anh A 51 / K3 Anh 109i / KV 18 (spurious): I. Molto allegro
Punctuation Within CSG Titles
Standard ASCII punctuation should always be used for the space , the full-colon :, the semi-colon ;, the hyphen-minus -, single quotation marks ' ', double quotation marks " ", parenthesis ( ), square braces [ ], commas ,, periods ., and all other punctuation.
Additional punctuation guidelines of the applicable Capitalization Standard (e.g. French and Vietnamese spacing) are not overridden by CSG for Works.
- What is 'classical'?
- What is CSG for Works not?
- Note that Artist Intent for a specific title must be demonstrated and voters must agree that it is present. It is not sufficient to merely claim Artist Intent without evidence.
- See Wikipedia's style guidelines regarding 'true' classical work titles versus 'generic' classical work titles for more on this distinction.
- Eingänge, also "Eingang" is a term used primarily by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven to describe a shorter fermata embellishment versus a normal Cadenza. While cadenzas traditionally contain modulation and are placed over a tonic six-four chord, Eingänge avoid modulation and are indicated by a fermata over a dominant seventh chord. While cadenzas typically fall within a Form, eingänge typically are used to lead from one Form into a new Form. Eingänge will specifically be named as such a form by the composer. The term "Lead-in" may also be used to describe an Eingänge.