Difference between revisions of "Release/Format"

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m (24 revision(s))
(removing broken images (not replacing 'cause the table is big enough already) and updated for current formats list)
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{{DocumentationHeader|Release|Terminology}}  
+
{{DocumentationHeader|Release|Terminology}}
  
 
==Description==
 
==Description==
  
This field describes which medium a [[Release]] is distributed on. Normally a release will be distributed on multiple media with different [[Release Catalog Number|ReleaseCatalogNumber]]<code><nowiki></nowiki></code>s and [[Barcode|BarCode]]<code><nowiki></nowiki></code>s; each should have a separate release event.  
+
This field describes which medium a [[Release|release]] is distributed on. Normally a release will be distributed on multiple media with different [[Release Catalog Number|catalog numbers]] and [[Barcode|barcodes]]; each should have a separate release event.
  
The values may be:  
+
The values may be:
* '''CD'''
+
* CD
* '''DVD'''
+
* DVD
* '''SACD'''
+
* SACD
* '''DualDisc'''
+
* DualDisc
* '''LaserDisc'''
+
* LaserDisc
* '''MiniDisc'''
+
* MiniDisc
* '''Vinyl'''
+
* Vinyl
* '''Cassette'''
+
* Cassette
* '''Cartridge (4/8-tracks)'''
+
* Cartridge (4/8-tracks)
* '''Reel-to-reel'''
+
* Reel-to-reel
* '''DAT'''
+
* DAT
* '''Digital Media'''
+
* Digital Media
* '''Other'''
+
* Other
 +
* Wax Cylinder
 +
* Piano Roll
 +
* DCC
  
 
==Exhaustive list==
 
==Exhaustive list==
  
Here's an attempt at listing some/most/all (?) known/existing audio physical support, and how we map them to our own list:  
+
Here's an attempt at listing some/most/all (?) known/existing audio physical support, and how we map them to our own list:
  
 
===Purely audio physical supports===
 
===Purely audio physical supports===
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{| border="1"
 
{| border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
| Name || Date of creation || Rarity || Details || Picture  ||  Map to  
+
| Name || Date of creation || Rarity || Details || Map to
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Phonograph_cylinder|Phonograph cylinder]] || 1877 || Very rare || Mechanical analog; "hill-and-dale" grooves, vertical stylus motion || [[Image:CylinderRecordsWPackage.jpg]]  ||  Wax Cylinder  
+
| [[WikiPedia:Phonograph_cylinder|Phonograph cylinder]] || 1877 || Very rare || Mechanical analog; "hill-and-dale" grooves, vertical stylus motion || Wax Cylinder
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Piano_roll|Piano roll]] || 1883 || Very rare || Mechanical digital || [[Image:WelteHandnuancierung.jpg]]/180px-[[Welte Handnuancierung|WelteHandnuancierung]].jpg  ||  Piano Roll  
+
| [[WikiPedia:Piano_roll|Piano roll]] || 1883 || Very rare || Mechanical digital || Piano Roll
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Gramophone_record|Gramophone record]] || 1895 || Common || Mechanical analog; lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion. The terms LP record (LP, 33, or 33-1/3 rpm record), EP, 16-2/3 rpm record (16), 45 rpm record (45), and 78 rpm record (78) refers to specific types of gramophone records || [[Image:Vynil_record.jpg]]/300px-Vynil_record.jpg  ||  Vinyl  
+
| [[WikiPedia:Gramophone_record|Gramophone record]] || 1895 || Common || Mechanical analog; lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion. The terms LP record (LP, 33, or 33-1/3 rpm record), EP, 16-2/3 rpm record (16), 45 rpm record (45), and 78 rpm record (78) refers to specific types of gramophone records || Vinyl
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Wire_recording|Wire recording]] || 1898 || Rare || Analog; magnetization; no "bias" || [[Image:Peirce_wire_recorder.jpg]]/250px-Peirce_wire_recorder.jpg  ||  Other  
+
| [[WikiPedia:Wire_recording|Wire recording]] || 1898 || Rare || Analog; magnetization; no "bias" || Other
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Reel-to-reel_audio_tape_recording|Reel-to-Reel]] || 1930s || Rare || Analog; magnetization; "bias" dramatically increases linearity/fidelity || [[Image:Reel-to-reel_recorder_tc-630.jpg]]/300px-Reel-to-reel_recorder_tc-630.jpg  ||  Reel-to-reel  
+
| [[WikiPedia:Reel-to-reel_audio_tape_recording|Reel-to-Reel]] || 1930s || Rare || Analog; magnetization; "bias" dramatically increases linearity/fidelity || Reel-to-reel
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Gramophone_record|Vinyl record]] / Quad Vinyl || 1948/1957/1971 || Common || Is a simple evolution of gramophone record: Analog, with preemphasis and other equalization techniques (LP, RIAA). Lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion. Monaural were created in 1948, then stereo vinyl came later in 1957 and Quad in 1971: analog, with preemphasis and other equalization techniques. Combination lateral/vertical stylus motion with each channel encoded 45 degrees to the vertical. || [[Image:Vynil_record.jpg]]/300px-Vynil_record.jpg  ||  Vinyl  
+
| [[WikiPedia:Gramophone_record|Vinyl record]] / Quad Vinyl || 1948/1957/1971 || Common || Is a simple evolution of gramophone record: Analog, with preemphasis and other equalization techniques (LP, RIAA). Lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion. Monaural were created in 1948, then stereo vinyl came later in 1957 and Quad in 1971: analog, with preemphasis and other equalization techniques. Combination lateral/vertical stylus motion with each channel encoded 45 degrees to the vertical. || Vinyl
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:4-track_cartridge|4 tracks cartridge]] / [[WikiPedia:8-track_cartridge|8 tracks cartridge]] / Quad 8 tracks || 1962/1965/1970 || Rare? || Analog, 1/4 inch wide tape, 3 3/4 inches/sec, endless loop cartridge. Quad: 4 Channel Stereo. || 270px-Sexpistols8track  ||  4 Tracks/8 Tracks/Quad 8
+
| [[WikiPedia:4-track_cartridge|4 tracks cartridge]] / [[WikiPedia:8-track_cartridge|8 tracks cartridge]] / Quad 8 tracks || 1962/1965/1970 || Rare? || Analog, 1/4 inch wide tape, 3 3/4 inches/sec, endless loop cartridge. Quad: 4 Channel Stereo. || Cartridge (4/8-tracks)
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Compact_Cassette|Compact cassette]] || 1963 || (still) common? || Analog, with bias, preemphasis, 1/8 inch wide tape, 17/8 inches/sec. 1970: introduced Dolby noise reduction. || [[Image:Tdkc60cassette.jpg]]  ||  Audio cassette
+
| [[WikiPedia:Compact_Cassette|Compact cassette]] || 1963 || (still) common? || Analog, with bias, preemphasis, 1/8 inch wide tape, 17/8 inches/sec. 1970: introduced Dolby noise reduction. || Cassette
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Microcassette|Microcassette]] [[WikiPedia:Minicassette|Minicassette]] || 1969 || Rare || Analog, 1/8 inch wide tape, mostly mono, some stereo. 2.4 cm/s or 1.2 cm/s. || [[Image:CassetteAndMicrocassette.jpg]]/250px-[[Cassette And Microcassette|CassetteAndMicrocassette]].jpg  ||  Audio cassette
+
| [[WikiPedia:Microcassette|Microcassette]] [[WikiPedia:Minicassette|Minicassette]] || 1969 || Rare || Analog, 1/8 inch wide tape, mostly mono, some stereo. 2.4 cm/s or 1.2 cm/s. || Cassette
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Multitrack_recording|4 tracks/8 tracks/multitracks recording]] || ? || Very rare? || This is not in itself a physical format (may be performed on a variety of equipments, from tape based equipment to digital equipment and hard disks). Likely to be only available in studios, as professional equipments. || [[Image:Tascam-16Track.jpg]]/300px-Tascam-16Track.jpg  ||  Other  
+
| [[WikiPedia:Multitrack_recording|4 tracks/8 tracks/multitracks recording]] || ? || Very rare? || This is not in itself a physical format (may be performed on a variety of equipments, from tape based equipment to digital equipment and hard disks). Likely to be only available in studios, as professional equipments. || Other
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Elcaset|Elcaset]] || 1976 || Rare || A short lived cassette format. || [[Image:Elcaset.jpg]]/350px-Elcaset.jpg  ||  Audio cassette
+
| [[WikiPedia:Elcaset|Elcaset]] || 1976 || Rare || A short lived cassette format. || Cassette
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Compact_Disc|Compact Disc]] || 1982 || Widely spread  || PCM, Avaialble in 120mm and 80mm formats. || 200px-Typical_Compact_Discsvg  ||  CD  
+
| [[WikiPedia:Compact_Disc|Compact Disc]] || 1982 || Widespread || PCM, Avaialble in 120mm and 80mm formats. || CD
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Digital_Audio_Tape|DAT]] || 1987 || Rare ||   || [[Image:Dat_cartridge.jpg]]/250px-Dat_cartridge.jpg  ||  DAT  
+
| [[WikiPedia:Digital_Audio_Tape|DAT]] || 1987 || Rare || || DAT
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:MiniDisc|Mini Disc]] || 1991 || Common || ATRAC || [[Image:Minidisc_Sony_MZ1.jpg]]/250px-Minidisc_Sony_MZ1.jpg  ||  Minidisc
+
| [[WikiPedia:MiniDisc|MiniDisc]] || 1991 || Common || ATRAC || MiniDisc
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Digital_Compact_Cassette|Digital Compact Cassette]] || 1992 || Very rare ||   || [[Image:DQ_Mag_DCC_IV.jpg]]/350px-DQ_Mag_DCC_IV.jpg  ||  Other? DAT?
+
| [[WikiPedia:Digital_Compact_Cassette|Digital Compact Cassette]] || 1992 || Very rare || || DCC
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:DTS-CD|DTS-CD a.k.a. 5.1 Music Disc]] || 1992 || Very rare || DTS Audio ||   ||  CD  
+
| [[WikiPedia:DTS-CD|DTS-CD a.k.a. 5.1 Music Disc]] || 1992 || Very rare || DTS Audio || CD
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:DVD-Audio|DVD-Audio]] || 1999 || Rare? Common? ||   ||   ||  DVD  
+
| [[WikiPedia:DVD-Audio|DVD-Audio]] || 1999 || Rare? Common? || || DVD
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Super_Audio_CD|SACD]] || 1999 || Rare? Common? ||   || [[Image:CD_autolev_crop.jpg]]/200px-CD_autolev_crop.jpg  ||  SACD  
+
| [[WikiPedia:Super_Audio_CD|SACD]] || 1999 || Rare? Common? || || SACD
 
|}
 
|}
  
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{| border="1"
 
{| border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
| Name || Date of creation || Rarity || Details || Picture  ||  Map to  
+
| Name || Date of creation || Rarity || Details || Map to
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Betamax|Betamax]] || 1975 || Common? || 'Dolby Stereo' cinema surround sound. || [[Image:Beta_Max_Tape.jpg]]/180px-Beta_Max_Tape.jpg  ||  Other  
+
| [[WikiPedia:Betamax|Betamax]] || 1975 || Common? || 'Dolby Stereo' cinema surround sound. || Other
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Laserdisc|Laserdisc]] || 1978 || Rare? ||   || [[Image:LDDVDComparison.jpg]]/250px-LDDVDComparison.jpg  ||  Laserdisc
+
| [[WikiPedia:Laserdisc|Laserdisc]] || 1978 || Rare? || || LaserDisc
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:DVD|DVD]] || 1997 || Widely spread  ||   || [[Image:DVD-R_bottom-side.jpg]]/200px-DVD-R_bottom-side.jpg  ||  DVD  
+
| [[WikiPedia:DVD|DVD]] || 1997 || Widespread || || DVD
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:DualDisc|DualDisc]] || 2003 ||   Common? || An audio cd on one side (though not redbook), and a dvd on the other side ||   ||  DualDisc  
+
| [[WikiPedia:DualDisc|DualDisc]] || 2003 || Common? || An audio cd on one side (though not redbook), and a dvd on the other side || DualDisc
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:USB_flash_drive#Music_storage_and_marketing|USB flash drive]] || 2004 (as music format) || Common? ||   || Other? Digital?  
+
| [[WikiPedia:USB_flash_drive#Music_storage_and_marketing|USB flash drive]] || 2004 (as music format) || Common? || || Other? Digital?
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:HD-DVD|HD-DVD]] || 2005 || Rare? ||   ||   ||  ?  
+
| [[WikiPedia:HD-DVD|HD-DVD]] || 2005 || Rare? || || ?
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Blu-Ray|Blu-Ray]] || 2006 || Rare? ||   ||   ||  ?  
+
| [[WikiPedia:Blu-Ray|Blu-Ray]] || 2006 || Rare? || || ?
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:VinylDisc|VinylDisc]] || 2007 || Rare? || It is made from two fused layers; the silver layer contains the digital information (either in CD or DVD format) and the upper layer has a record groove, meaning it can be played on any record-player. || [[Image:dvd_vinyl_gr1.jpg]]  ||  Other? DualDisc?  
+
| [[WikiPedia:VinylDisc|VinylDisc]] || 2007 || Rare? || It is made from two fused layers; the silver layer contains the digital information (either in CD or DVD format) and the upper layer has a record groove, meaning it can be played on any record-player. || Other? DualDisc?
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:slotMusic|slotMusic]] || 2008 || Common? || slotMusic is a type of microSD memory card developed by [[San Disk|SanDisk]] preloaded with music in DRM-free MP3 format and other content. The current selection of songs comes from EMI Music, Sony BMG, Universal Music Group, and Warner Music Group. ||    || Other? Digital?  
+
| [[WikiPedia:slotMusic|slotMusic]] || 2008 || Common? || slotMusic is a type of microSD memory card developed by SanDisk preloaded with music in DRM-free MP3 format and other content. The current selection of songs comes from EMI Music, Sony BMG, Universal Music Group, and Warner Music Group. || Other? Digital?
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
(*) Rarity is just a rough indication of availability as consumer products - values are: "Very Rare", "Rare", "Common", "Widespread"
  
 
===Partial list of digital audio formats===
 
===Partial list of digital audio formats===
  
* 1985                 [[WikiPedia:Aiff|Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF)]]  
+
* 1985 [[WikiPedia:Aiff|Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF)]]
* 1985                 Sound Designer (by Digidesign)  
+
* 1985 Sound Designer (by Digidesign)
* 1992                 [[WikiPedia:Wav|WAVEform (WAV)]]  
+
* 1992 [[WikiPedia:Wav|WAVEform (WAV)]]
* 1992                 [[WikiPedia:Dolby_Digital|Dolby Digital surround cinema sound (AC-3)]]  
+
* 1992 [[WikiPedia:Dolby_Digital|Dolby Digital surround cinema sound (AC-3)]]
* 1992                 [[WikiPedia:ATRAC|Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding (ATRAC)]]  
+
* 1992 [[WikiPedia:ATRAC|Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding (ATRAC)]]
* 1993                 [[WikiPedia:Digital_Theater_System|Digital Theatre System (DTS)]]  
+
* 1993 [[WikiPedia:Digital_Theater_System|Digital Theatre System (DTS)]]
* 1993                 [[WikiPedia:SDDS|Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS)]]  
+
* 1993 [[WikiPedia:SDDS|Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS)]]
* 1995                 [[WikiPedia:Mp3|MP3]]  
+
* 1995 [[WikiPedia:Mp3|MP3]]
* 1999                 [[WikiPedia:Wma|Windows Media Audio (WMA)]]  
+
* 1999 [[WikiPedia:Wma|Windows Media Audio (WMA)]]
* 1999                 [[WikiPedia:TTA_%28codec%29|The True Audio Lossless Codec (TTA)]]  
+
* 1999 [[WikiPedia:TTA_%28codec%29|The True Audio Lossless Codec (TTA)]]
* 2000                 [[WikiPedia:Flac|Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC)]]  
+
* 2000 [[WikiPedia:Flac|Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC)]]
* 2001                 [[WikiPedia:Advanced_Audio_Coding|Advanced audio coding (AAC)]]  
+
* 2001 [[WikiPedia:Advanced_Audio_Coding|Advanced audio coding (AAC)]]
* 2002                 [[WikiPedia:Ogg|Ogg]] [[WikiPedia:Vorbis|Vorbis]]  
+
* 2002 [[WikiPedia:Ogg|Ogg]] [[WikiPedia:Vorbis|Vorbis]]
* 2004                 [[WikiPedia:Apple_Lossless|Apple Lossless (ALE or ALAC)]]  
+
* 2004 [[WikiPedia:Apple_Lossless|Apple Lossless (ALE or ALAC)]]
 
 
(*) Rarity is just a rough indication of availability as consumer products - values are: "Very Rare", "Rare", "Common", "Widely spread"
 
  
 
==More information==
 
==More information==
  
* The original ticket that led to our implementation is [[Ticket:2565|2565]]  
+
* The original ticket that led to our implementation is [[Ticket:2565|2565]]
* Mailing list discussion is [http://lists.musicbrainz.org/pipermail/musicbrainz-style/2007-March/004572.html here]  
+
* Mailing list discussion is [http://lists.musicbrainz.org/pipermail/musicbrainz-style/2007-March/004572.html here]
* Wikipedia has a list of [[WikiPedia:Audio_format|Audio Formats]]  
+
* Wikipedia has a list of [[WikiPedia:Audio_format|Audio Formats]]
* Discogs has its own list in their [http://help.discogs.com/wiki/SubmissionGuidelinesFormat Submission Guidelines]  
+
* Discogs has its own list in their [http://help.discogs.com/wiki/SubmissionGuidelinesFormat Submission Guidelines]
 
 
----{{DocumentationFooter|1.0|voiceinsideyou}}
 
  
 
[[Category:To Be Reviewed]] [[Category:Release]] [[Category:Terminology]]
 
[[Category:To Be Reviewed]] [[Category:Release]] [[Category:Terminology]]

Revision as of 23:07, 3 December 2009

Template:DocumentationHeader

Description

This field describes which medium a release is distributed on. Normally a release will be distributed on multiple media with different catalog numbers and barcodes; each should have a separate release event.

The values may be:

  • CD
  • DVD
  • SACD
  • DualDisc
  • LaserDisc
  • MiniDisc
  • Vinyl
  • Cassette
  • Cartridge (4/8-tracks)
  • Reel-to-reel
  • DAT
  • Digital Media
  • Other
  • Wax Cylinder
  • Piano Roll
  • DCC

Exhaustive list

Here's an attempt at listing some/most/all (?) known/existing audio physical support, and how we map them to our own list:

Purely audio physical supports

Name Date of creation Rarity Details Map to
Phonograph cylinder 1877 Very rare Mechanical analog; "hill-and-dale" grooves, vertical stylus motion Wax Cylinder
Piano roll 1883 Very rare Mechanical digital Piano Roll
Gramophone record 1895 Common Mechanical analog; lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion. The terms LP record (LP, 33, or 33-1/3 rpm record), EP, 16-2/3 rpm record (16), 45 rpm record (45), and 78 rpm record (78) refers to specific types of gramophone records Vinyl
Wire recording 1898 Rare Analog; magnetization; no "bias" Other
Reel-to-Reel 1930s Rare Analog; magnetization; "bias" dramatically increases linearity/fidelity Reel-to-reel
Vinyl record / Quad Vinyl 1948/1957/1971 Common Is a simple evolution of gramophone record: Analog, with preemphasis and other equalization techniques (LP, RIAA). Lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion. Monaural were created in 1948, then stereo vinyl came later in 1957 and Quad in 1971: analog, with preemphasis and other equalization techniques. Combination lateral/vertical stylus motion with each channel encoded 45 degrees to the vertical. Vinyl
4 tracks cartridge / 8 tracks cartridge / Quad 8 tracks 1962/1965/1970 Rare? Analog, 1/4 inch wide tape, 3 3/4 inches/sec, endless loop cartridge. Quad: 4 Channel Stereo. Cartridge (4/8-tracks)
Compact cassette 1963 (still) common? Analog, with bias, preemphasis, 1/8 inch wide tape, 17/8 inches/sec. 1970: introduced Dolby noise reduction. Cassette
Microcassette Minicassette 1969 Rare Analog, 1/8 inch wide tape, mostly mono, some stereo. 2.4 cm/s or 1.2 cm/s. Cassette
4 tracks/8 tracks/multitracks recording ? Very rare? This is not in itself a physical format (may be performed on a variety of equipments, from tape based equipment to digital equipment and hard disks). Likely to be only available in studios, as professional equipments. Other
Elcaset 1976 Rare A short lived cassette format. Cassette
Compact Disc 1982 Widespread PCM, Avaialble in 120mm and 80mm formats. CD
DAT 1987 Rare DAT
MiniDisc 1991 Common ATRAC MiniDisc
Digital Compact Cassette 1992 Very rare DCC
DTS-CD a.k.a. 5.1 Music Disc 1992 Very rare DTS Audio CD
DVD-Audio 1999 Rare? Common? DVD
SACD 1999 Rare? Common? SACD

Video and mixed physical supports

Name Date of creation Rarity Details Map to
Betamax 1975 Common? 'Dolby Stereo' cinema surround sound. Other
Laserdisc 1978 Rare? LaserDisc
DVD 1997 Widespread DVD
DualDisc 2003 Common? An audio cd on one side (though not redbook), and a dvd on the other side DualDisc
USB flash drive 2004 (as music format) Common? Other? Digital?
HD-DVD 2005 Rare? ?
Blu-Ray 2006 Rare? ?
VinylDisc 2007 Rare? It is made from two fused layers; the silver layer contains the digital information (either in CD or DVD format) and the upper layer has a record groove, meaning it can be played on any record-player. Other? DualDisc?
slotMusic 2008 Common? slotMusic is a type of microSD memory card developed by SanDisk preloaded with music in DRM-free MP3 format and other content. The current selection of songs comes from EMI Music, Sony BMG, Universal Music Group, and Warner Music Group. Other? Digital?

(*) Rarity is just a rough indication of availability as consumer products - values are: "Very Rare", "Rare", "Common", "Widespread"

Partial list of digital audio formats

More information