Difference between revisions of "Release/Format"

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(forgot SACD (Imported from MoinMoin))
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copy_Control)
 
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This field describes which medium a [[Release|release]] is distributed on.  Normally a release will be distributed on multiple media with different [[Release Catalog Number|catalog numbers]] and [[Barcode|barcodes]]; each should be a separate [[Release|release]].
  
{{LabelsStatus}}
+
The values may be:
  
==Description==
+
{| class="sortable" border="1"
 
+
|-
This field describes what kind of medium is a [[Release]] distributed on.  
+
!colspan="3"|Name || Date of creation || Rarity* || Details
 
+
|-
The values may be:  
+
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:Compact_Disc|Compact Disc]] || 1982 || Widespread || PCM, Available in 120mm and 80mm formats.
* '''CD'''
+
|-
* '''DVD'''
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Copy_Control|Copy Control CD]] || 2001 || Common? || Copy Control CDs went out of favor by the end of 2006
* '''SACD'''
+
|-
* '''DualDisc'''
+
| ||colspan="2"| Data CD || || ||
* '''LaserDisc'''
+
|-
* '''MiniDisc'''
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:DTS-CD|DTS CD]] || 1992 || Very Rare || a.k.a. 5.1 Music Disc — DTS Audio
* '''Vinyl'''
+
|-
* '''Cassette'''
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Blue Book (CD standard)|Enhanced CD]] || 1995 || Common? Rare? || a.k.a E-CD, CD-Extra, CD-Plus & CD+ -- combines music and data tracks
* '''Cartridge (4/8-tracks)'''
+
|-
* '''Reel-to-reel'''
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:High Definition Compatible Digital|HDCD]] || 1995 || Rare? || High Definition Compatible Digital. Enhanced sound recording compatible with the standard Audio CD. In 2000 there were over 4000 releases available, in 2008 there were about 4000 releases. [http://www.goodwinshighend.com/hdcd.htm]
* '''DAT'''
+
|-
* '''Digital Media'''
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:CD-R|CD-R]] || 1995 || Common? || Record-able CD
* '''Other'''
+
|-
 
+
| ||colspan="2"| 8cm CD || || ||
==Exhaustive list==
+
|-
 
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Blu-spec CD|Blu-spec CD]] || 2008 || Common || PCM
Here's an attempt at listing some/most/all (?) known/existing audio physical support, and how we map them to our own list:  
+
|-
 
+
| ||colspan="2"|[http://shm-cd.jp SHM-CD] || 2008 || Common || ([http://shm-cd.co-site.jp/about/ English]) (Super High Material CD) PCM
===Purely audio physical supports===
+
|-
 
+
| ||colspan="2"| HQCD || || ||
{| border="1"
+
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:CD+G|CD+G]] || 1985 || Rare || Audio CD with Graphics, usually used for karaoke
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="2"| || 8cm CD+G || || ||
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:Gramophone_record|Vinyl]] || 1948/1957/1971 || Common || Vinyl / Quad Vinyl. A simple evolution of gramophone record: Analog, with pre-emphasis and other equalization techniques (LP, RIAA). Lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion. Monaural were created in 1948, then stereo vinyl came later in 1957 and Quad in 1971: analog, with pre-emphasis and other equalization techniques. Combination lateral/vertical stylus motion with each channel encoded 45 degrees to the vertical.
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| 7" Vinyl || || Common || 17 cm
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| 10" Vinyl || || || 25 cm
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| 12" Vinyl || || Common || 30 cm
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Flexi disc|Flexi-disc]] || 1962 || Common? || Phonosheet, Sonosheet, Soundsheet
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="2"| || 7" Flexi-disc || || Common? || 17 cm
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| Digital Media || || Widespread || All born-digital releases, in any file format
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:Compact Cassette|Cassette]] || 1963 || Common? || Analog, with bias, preemphasis, 1/8 inch wide tape, 17/8 inches/sec. 1970: introduced Dolby noise reduction.
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:DVD|DVD]] || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| || colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:DVD-Audio|DVD-Audio]] || 1999 || Rare? Common? ||
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:DVD-Video|DVD-Video]] || 1997 || Widespread ||
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:Super_Audio_CD|SACD]] || 1999 || Rare || Super Audio CD. Intended as successor to CD; generally regarded as a failure except by audiophiles.
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Hybrid SACD|Hybrid SACD]] || || Rare || SACD which also contains audio playable in normal CD players
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="2"| || Hybrid SACD (CD layer) || || ||
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="2"| || Hybrid SACD (SACD layer) || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| SHM-SACD || || Rare || SACD manufactured using the SHM manufacturing process
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:DualDisc|DualDisc]] || 2003 || Common? || An audio cd on one side (though not redbook), and a dvd on the other side
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| DualDisc (CD side) || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| DualDisc (DVD-Video side) || || ||
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| DualDisc (DVD-Audio side) || || ||
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:MiniDisc|MiniDisc]] || 1991 || Common || ATRAC
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:Blu-Ray|Blu-ray]] || 2006 || Common ||
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:HD-DVD|HD-DVD]] || 2005 || Rare? ||
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:Video CD|VCD]] || 1993 || Rare || Video CD. Digital format, precursor to DVD
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Super Video CD|SVCD]] || 2000 || Rare? Common? || Super Video CD. Chinese-developed alternative to DVD-Video; intended as successor to VCD; didn't succeed.
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:CD Video|CDV]] || 1987 || Rare || CD Video. Mixed analog/digital video/audio format; began to disappear by 1991
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:Universal Media Disc|UMD]] || 2004 || Rare || Universal Media Disk. a proprietary format used only by the PlayStation Portable; some movies were released on it
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| Shellac || 1921 || Common? || Phonogram record made with shellac instead of vinyl
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| 7" Shellac || || || 17 cm
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| 10" Shellac || || || 25 cm
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| 12" Shellac || || || 30 cm
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| [[Wikipedia:Secure_Digital|SD card]] || ? || ? ||
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:slotMusic|slotMusic]] || 2008 || Common? || A type of microSD memory card developed by SanDisk preloaded with music in DRM-free MP3 format and other content. The current selection of songs comes from EMI Music, Sony BMG, Universal Music Group, and Warner Music Group.
 +
|-
 +
|colspan="3"| Other || || Rare || Use for formats not otherwise listed
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Floppy disk|3.5" Floppy Disk]] || 1971 || Rare? ||
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Betamax|Betamax]] || 1975 || Common? || 'Dolby Stereo' cinema surround sound.
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| Cartridge || 1962 || Rare? || [[Wikipedia:4-track_cartridge|4 track]] (in 1962) / [[Wikipedia:8-track_cartridge|8 track]] (in 1965) / Quad 8 track (in 1970) -- Analog, 1/4 inch wide tape, 3 3/4 inches/sec, endless loop cartridge. Quad: 4 Channel Stereo.
 +
|-
 +
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Capacitance Electronic Disc|CED]] || 1981 || Very Rare || Capacitance Electronic Disc
 
|-
 
|-
| Name  || Date of creation  || Rarity  || Details  || Picture  || Map to
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Digital Audio Tape|DAT]] || 1987 || Rare ||
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Phonograph_cylinder|Phonograph cylinder]] || 1877  || Very rare  ||  Mechanical analog; "hill-and-dale" grooves, vertical stylus motion  ||  [[Image:CylinderRecordsWPackage.jpg]]/200px-CylinderRecordsWPackage.jpg  || Other
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Digital Compact Cassette|DCC]] || 1992 || Very Rare || Digital Compact Cassette
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Piano_roll|Piano roll]] || 1883  || Very rare  ||  Mechanical digital  ||  [[Image:WelteHandnuancierung.jpg]]/180px-[[Welte Handnuancierung|WelteHandnuancierung]].jpg  || Other
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:DVDplus|DVDplus]] || || Rare ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Gramophone_record|Gramophone record]]  || 1895  || Common  ||  Mechanical analog; lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion. The terms LP record (LP, 33, or 33-1/3 rpm record), EP, 16-2/3 rpm record (16), 45 rpm record (45), and 78 rpm record (78) refers to specific types of gramophone records  || [[Image:Vynil_record.jpg]]/156px-Vynil_record.jpg  || Vinyl
+
|colspan="2"| || DVDplus (CD side) || || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Wire_recording|Wire recording]]  || 1898 ||  Rare  || Analog; magnetization; no "bias"  || [[Image:Peirce_wire_recorder.jpg]]/250px-Peirce_wire_recorder.jpg  || Other
+
|colspan="2"| || DVDplus (DVD-Video side) || || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Reel-to-reel_audio_tape_recording|Reel-to-Reel]]  || 1930s || Rare  ||  Analog; magnetization; "bias" dramatically increases linearity/fidelity  || [[Image:Reel-to-reel_recorder_tc-630.jpg]]/300px-Reel-to-reel_recorder_tc-630.jpg  || Reel-to-reel
+
|colspan="2"| || DVDplus (DVD-Audio side) || || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Magnetic_tape|Magnetic tape]] || 1930s  ||  Common  ||  Analog; magnetization; "bias" dramatically increases linearity/fidelity  || 180px-Kaseta_magnetofonowa_ubt  || Audio cassette
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Edison Disc Record|Edison Diamond Disc]] || 1912 || Rare ||
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Gramophone_record|Vinyl record]] / Quad Vinyl  ||  1948/1957/1971  ||  Common  || Is a simple evolution of gramophone record: Analog, with preemphasis and other equalization techniques (LP, RIAA). Lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion. Monaural were created in 1948, then stereo vinyl came later in 1957 and Quad in 1971: analog, with preemphasis and other equalization techniques. Combination lateral/vertical stylus motion with each channel encoded 45 degrees to the vertical.  || [[Image:Vynil_record.jpg]]/156px-Vynil_record.jpg  || Vinyl
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Laserdisc|LaserDisc]] || 1978 || Rare? ||
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:4-track_cartridge|4 tracks cartridge]] / [[WikiPedia:8-track_cartridge|8 tracks cartridge]] / Quad 8 tracks  || 1962/1965/1970  ||  Rare?  || Analog, 1/4 inch wide tape, 3 3/4 inches/sec, endless loop cartridge. Quad: 4 Channel Stereo.  || 270px-Sexpistols8track  || 4 Tracks/8 Tracks/Quad 8
+
| || || 8" LaserDisc || || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Microcassette|Microcassette]] [[WikiPedia:Minicassette|Minicassette]]  || 1969  || Rare  ||  Analog, 1/8 inch wide tape, mostly mono, some stereo. 2.4 cm/s or 1.2 cm/s.  || [[Image:CassetteAndMicrocassette.jpg]]/250px-[[Cassette And Microcassette|CassetteAndMicrocassette]].jpg  || Audio cassette
+
|colspan="2"| || 12" LaserDisc || || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Compact_Cassette|Compact cassette]]  || 1963  || Rare? || Analog, with bias, preemphasis, 1/8 inch wide tape, 17/8 inches/sec. 1970: introduced Dolby noise reduction.  ||  [[Image:Tdkc60cassette.jpg]]  ||  Audio cassette
+
| ||colspan="2"| Music Card || || Common? || Card with a digital download code printed on it
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Multitrack_recording|4 tracks/8 tracks/multitracks recording]] ||  ?  ||  Very rare?  || This is not in itself a physical format (may be performed on a variety of equipments, from tape based equipment to digital equipment and hard disks). Likely to be only available in studios, as professional equipments.  || [[Image:Tascam-16Track.jpg]]/300px-Tascam-16Track.jpg  || Other
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Pathé Records|Pathé disc]] || 1905 || Rare ||
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Elcaset|Elcaset]] || 1976  || Rare ||  A short lived cassette format.  ||  [[Image:Elcaset.jpg]]/350px-Elcaset.jpg  || Audio cassette
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Piano roll|Piano roll]] || 1883 || Very Rare || Mechanical digital
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Compact_Disc|Compact Disc]]  || 1982  || Widely spread  || PCM  || 200px-Typical_Compact_Discsvg  ||  CD
+
| ||colspan="2"| Playbutton || || Rare? ||
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Digital_Audio_Tape|DAT]] || 1987  || Rare ||   ||  [[Image:Dat_cartridge.jpg]]/250px-Dat_cartridge.jpg  ||  DAT
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Reel-to-reel audio tape recording|Reel-to-reel]] || 1930s || Rare || Analog; magnetization; "bias" dramatically increases linearity/fidelity
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:MiniDisc|Mini Disc]] || 1991  || Common ||  ATRAC  ||  [[Image:Minidisc_Sony_MZ1.jpg]]/250px-Minidisc_Sony_MZ1.jpg  || Minidisc
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:USB_flash_drive#Music_storage_and_marketing|USB Flash Drive]] || 2004 || Common? || 2004 was earliest use as a music format
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Digital_Compact_Cassette|Digital Compact Cassette]] ||  1992  ||  Very rare  ||   ||   || Other? DAT?
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Video High Density|VHD]] || 1983 || Rare ||
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:DTS-CD|DTS-CD a.k.a. 5.1 Music Disc]] ||  1992  ||  Very rare  || DTS Audio  ||   || CD
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:VHS|VHS]] || 197X || Common ||
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:DVD-Audio|DVD-Audio]] || 1999  || Rare? Common?  ||    ||   |DVD  
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:VinylDisc|VinylDisc]] || 2007 || Rare? || It is made from two fused layers; the silver layer contains the digital information (either in CD or DVD format) and the upper layer has a record groove, meaning it can be played on any record-player.
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Super_Audio_CD|SACD]] || 1999  || Rare? Common?  ||   ||  [[Image:CD_autolev_crop.jpg]]/200px-CD_autolev_crop.jpg  ||  SACD
+
| ||colspan="2"| [[Wikipedia:Phonograph_cylinder|Wax Cylinder]] || 1877 || Very Rare || Mechanical analog; "hill-and-dale" grooves, vertical stylus motion
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Video and mixed physical supports===
+
(*) Rarity is just a rough indication of availability as consumer products - values are: "Very Rare", "Rare", "Common" and "Widespread".
 +
 
 +
====Other items from the list I'm not sure how to fit in====
  
 
{| border="1"
 
{| border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
| Name || Date of creation || Rarity || Details || Picture  ||  Map to  
+
| Name || Date of creation || Rarity || Details || Map to
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Betamax|Betamax]] || 1975  || Common?  || 'Dolby Stereo' cinema surround sound.  || [[Image:Sony_bmc100p.jpg]]/180px-Sony_bmc100p.jpg  ||  Other  
+
| [[Wikipedia:Wire_recording|Wire recording]] || 1898 || Rare || Analog; magnetization; no "bias" || Other
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:Laserdisc|Laserdisc]] || 1978  || Rare||   ||  [[Image:LDDVDComparison.jpg]]/250px-LDDVDComparison.jpg  || Laserdisc
+
| [[Wikipedia:Microcassette|Microcassette]] [[Wikipedia:Minicassette|Minicassette]] || 1969 || Rare || Analog, 1/8 inch wide tape, mostly mono, some stereo. 2.4 cm/s or 1.2 cm/s. || Cassette
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:DVD|DVD]] || 1997  || Widely spread  ||   ||  [[Image:DVD-R_bottom-side.jpg]]/200px-DVD-R_bottom-side.jpg  || DVD
+
| [[Wikipedia:Multitrack_recording|4 tracks/8 tracks/multitracks recording]] || ? || Very Rare? || This is not in itself a physical format (may be performed on a variety of equipments, from tape based equipment to digital equipment and hard disks). Likely to be only available in studios, as professional equipments. || Other
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:DualDisc|DualDisc]] || 2003  ||   Common?  || An audio cd on one side (though not redbook), and a dvd on the other side  ||   ||  Dualdisc
+
| [[Wikipedia:Elcaset|Elcaset]] || 1976 || Rare || A short lived cassette format. || Cassette
 
|-
 
|-
| [[WikiPedia:HD-DVD|HD-DVD]] ||  2005  ||  Rare?  ||   ||   || ?
+
| [[Wikipedia:Gramophone_record|Gramophone record]] || 1895 || Common || Mechanical analog; lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion. The terms LP record (LP, 33, or 33-1/3 rpm record), EP, 16-2/3 rpm record (16), 45 rpm record (45), and 78 rpm record (78) refers to specific types of gramophone records || Vinyl
|-
 
|  [[WikiPedia:Blu-Ray|Blu-Ray]]  ||  2006  ||  Rare?  ||    ||    || ?
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
===Partial list of digital audio formats===
 
===Partial list of digital audio formats===
  
* 1985                 Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF)  
+
* 1985 [[Wikipedia:Aiff|Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF)]]
* 1985                 Sound Designer (by Digidesign)  
+
* 1985 Sound Designer (by Digidesign)
* 1992                 WAVEform (WAV)  
+
* 1992 [[Wikipedia:Wav|WAVEform (WAV)]]
* 1992                 Dolby Digital surround cinema sound  
+
* 1992 [[Wikipedia:Dolby_Digital|Dolby Digital surround cinema sound (AC-3)]]
* 1993                 Digital Theatre System (DTS)  
+
* 1992 [[Wikipedia:ATRAC|Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding (ATRAC)]]
* 1993                 Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS)  
+
* 1993 [[Wikipedia:Digital_Theater_System|Digital Theatre System (DTS)]]
* 1995                 MP3  
+
* 1993 [[Wikipedia:SDDS|Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS)]]
* 1999                 Windows Media Audio (WMA)  
+
* 1995 [[Wikipedia:Mp3|MP3]]
* 1999                 The True Audio Lossless Codec (TTA)  
+
* 1999 [[Wikipedia:Wma|Windows Media Audio (WMA)]]
* 2000                 Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC)  
+
* 1999 [[Wikipedia:TTA_%28codec%29|The True Audio Lossless Codec (TTA)]]
* 2001                 Advanced audio coding (AAC)  
+
* 2000 [[Wikipedia:Flac|Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC)]]
* 2002                 Ogg Vorbis  
+
* 2001 [[Wikipedia:Advanced_Audio_Coding|Advanced audio coding (AAC)]]
* 2004                 Apple Lossless (ALE or ALAC)  
+
* 2002 [[Wikipedia:Ogg|Ogg]] [[Wikipedia:Vorbis|Vorbis]]
 
+
* 2004 [[Wikipedia:Apple_Lossless|Apple Lossless (ALE or ALAC)]]
(*) Rarity is just a rough indication of availability as consumer products - values are: "Very Rare", "Rare", "Common", "Widely spread"
+
* 2012 [[Wikipedia:Opus_(audio_format)|Opus]]
  
==This is Work in Progress==
+
==More information==
  
<ul><li style="list-style-type:none">Ticket for this is [[Ticket:2565|2565]] Mailing list discussion is [http://lists.musicbrainz.org/pipermail/musicbrainz-style/2007-March/004572.html here] Wikipedia has a list of [[WikiPedia:Audio_format|Audio Formats]] Discogs has its own list in their [http://help.discogs.com/wiki/SubmissionGuidelinesFormat Submission Guidelines]
+
* The original ticket that led to our implementation is [https://web.archive.org/web/20150214201239/http://bugs.musicbrainz.org/ticket/2565 2565]
</ul>
+
* Mailing list discussion is [http://lists.musicbrainz.org/pipermail/musicbrainz-style/2007-March/004572.html here]
 +
* Wikipedia has a list of [[Wikipedia:Audio_format|Audio Formats]]
 +
* https://musicbrainz.org/statistics/formats -- How many of each format are used, with links to lists of them.
  
[[Category:To Be Reviewed]] [[Category:Terminology]]
+
[[Category:To Be Reviewed]] [[Category:Release]] [[Category:Terminology]]

Latest revision as of 18:45, 26 April 2020

This field describes which medium a release is distributed on. Normally a release will be distributed on multiple media with different catalog numbers and barcodes; each should be a separate release.

The values may be:

Name Date of creation Rarity* Details
Compact Disc 1982 Widespread PCM, Available in 120mm and 80mm formats.
Copy Control CD 2001 Common? Copy Control CDs went out of favor by the end of 2006
Data CD
DTS CD 1992 Very Rare a.k.a. 5.1 Music Disc — DTS Audio
Enhanced CD 1995 Common? Rare? a.k.a E-CD, CD-Extra, CD-Plus & CD+ -- combines music and data tracks
HDCD 1995 Rare? High Definition Compatible Digital. Enhanced sound recording compatible with the standard Audio CD. In 2000 there were over 4000 releases available, in 2008 there were about 4000 releases. [1]
CD-R 1995 Common? Record-able CD
8cm CD
Blu-spec CD 2008 Common PCM
SHM-CD 2008 Common (English) (Super High Material CD) PCM
HQCD
CD+G 1985 Rare Audio CD with Graphics, usually used for karaoke
8cm CD+G
Vinyl 1948/1957/1971 Common Vinyl / Quad Vinyl. A simple evolution of gramophone record: Analog, with pre-emphasis and other equalization techniques (LP, RIAA). Lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion. Monaural were created in 1948, then stereo vinyl came later in 1957 and Quad in 1971: analog, with pre-emphasis and other equalization techniques. Combination lateral/vertical stylus motion with each channel encoded 45 degrees to the vertical.
7" Vinyl Common 17 cm
10" Vinyl 25 cm
12" Vinyl Common 30 cm
Flexi-disc 1962 Common? Phonosheet, Sonosheet, Soundsheet
7" Flexi-disc Common? 17 cm
Digital Media Widespread All born-digital releases, in any file format
Cassette 1963 Common? Analog, with bias, preemphasis, 1/8 inch wide tape, 17/8 inches/sec. 1970: introduced Dolby noise reduction.
DVD
DVD-Audio 1999 Rare? Common?
DVD-Video 1997 Widespread
SACD 1999 Rare Super Audio CD. Intended as successor to CD; generally regarded as a failure except by audiophiles.
Hybrid SACD Rare SACD which also contains audio playable in normal CD players
Hybrid SACD (CD layer)
Hybrid SACD (SACD layer)
SHM-SACD Rare SACD manufactured using the SHM manufacturing process
DualDisc 2003 Common? An audio cd on one side (though not redbook), and a dvd on the other side
DualDisc (CD side)
DualDisc (DVD-Video side)
DualDisc (DVD-Audio side)
MiniDisc 1991 Common ATRAC
Blu-ray 2006 Common
HD-DVD 2005 Rare?
VCD 1993 Rare Video CD. Digital format, precursor to DVD
SVCD 2000 Rare? Common? Super Video CD. Chinese-developed alternative to DVD-Video; intended as successor to VCD; didn't succeed.
CDV 1987 Rare CD Video. Mixed analog/digital video/audio format; began to disappear by 1991
UMD 2004 Rare Universal Media Disk. a proprietary format used only by the PlayStation Portable; some movies were released on it
Shellac 1921 Common? Phonogram record made with shellac instead of vinyl
7" Shellac 17 cm
10" Shellac 25 cm
12" Shellac 30 cm
SD card ? ?
slotMusic 2008 Common? A type of microSD memory card developed by SanDisk preloaded with music in DRM-free MP3 format and other content. The current selection of songs comes from EMI Music, Sony BMG, Universal Music Group, and Warner Music Group.
Other Rare Use for formats not otherwise listed
3.5" Floppy Disk 1971 Rare?
Betamax 1975 Common? 'Dolby Stereo' cinema surround sound.
Cartridge 1962 Rare? 4 track (in 1962) / 8 track (in 1965) / Quad 8 track (in 1970) -- Analog, 1/4 inch wide tape, 3 3/4 inches/sec, endless loop cartridge. Quad: 4 Channel Stereo.
CED 1981 Very Rare Capacitance Electronic Disc
DAT 1987 Rare
DCC 1992 Very Rare Digital Compact Cassette
DVDplus Rare
DVDplus (CD side)
DVDplus (DVD-Video side)
DVDplus (DVD-Audio side)
Edison Diamond Disc 1912 Rare
LaserDisc 1978 Rare?
8" LaserDisc
12" LaserDisc
Music Card Common? Card with a digital download code printed on it
Pathé disc 1905 Rare
Piano roll 1883 Very Rare Mechanical digital
Playbutton Rare?
Reel-to-reel 1930s Rare Analog; magnetization; "bias" dramatically increases linearity/fidelity
USB Flash Drive 2004 Common? 2004 was earliest use as a music format
VHD 1983 Rare
VHS 197X Common
VinylDisc 2007 Rare? It is made from two fused layers; the silver layer contains the digital information (either in CD or DVD format) and the upper layer has a record groove, meaning it can be played on any record-player.
Wax Cylinder 1877 Very Rare Mechanical analog; "hill-and-dale" grooves, vertical stylus motion

(*) Rarity is just a rough indication of availability as consumer products - values are: "Very Rare", "Rare", "Common" and "Widespread".

Other items from the list I'm not sure how to fit in

Name Date of creation Rarity Details Map to
Wire recording 1898 Rare Analog; magnetization; no "bias" Other
Microcassette Minicassette 1969 Rare Analog, 1/8 inch wide tape, mostly mono, some stereo. 2.4 cm/s or 1.2 cm/s. Cassette
4 tracks/8 tracks/multitracks recording ? Very Rare? This is not in itself a physical format (may be performed on a variety of equipments, from tape based equipment to digital equipment and hard disks). Likely to be only available in studios, as professional equipments. Other
Elcaset 1976 Rare A short lived cassette format. Cassette
Gramophone record 1895 Common Mechanical analog; lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion. The terms LP record (LP, 33, or 33-1/3 rpm record), EP, 16-2/3 rpm record (16), 45 rpm record (45), and 78 rpm record (78) refers to specific types of gramophone records Vinyl

Partial list of digital audio formats

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