Difference between revisions of "User:CatCat/v*na"

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Veena or vina
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= Veena or vina =
  
Veena:
+
== Early history ==
 +
Initially used as a name for any chordophone, ancient "veena" were musical bows with increasing strings such as
 +
these later developed into Harp veena like yazh and the burmese saung gauk.<br>
 +
concordantly, short necked lutes originating from graeco-buddhist northwestern gandhara province. these where played standing but held variously, pearshaped pipa-like lutes appear in peninsular India, these were played sitting or standing. kaccapi vina is believed to be lute-type.
 +
 
 +
== Medieval Stick Zither ==
 +
Medieval Stick Zither type veena. gradually replacing the previous harp and short-neck lute type, many folk instruments are these. principal types are alapini vina, ekatantri vina, and kinnari vina.<br>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== Folk Stick Zither ===
 +
 
 +
Of note is tuila, kullutna rajan, and also the <u>jantar</u>, which are Folk Stick-zithers
 +
 
 +
=== The Bīn ===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== Fretless Stick Zither ===
 +
 
 +
The Vicitrā vīṇā is the northern fretless instrument, it is a Stick Zither, but this is actually of the hybrid bīṇ sitār type: it has a wide neck (about 10 cm) which is D shaped with the sympathetic strings' pegs set in the side. The neck ends in an integrated wood resonator, often carved like a peacock's head, in some cases it is smaller and pear-shaped, in others it is larger like the sitar's. The hollow neck has two large bottle-gourds screwed into the back. The main strings are tuned in descending 4th and 5ths, the slider (baṭṭā) is a glass egg.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Saraswatī Vīṇā ==
 +
 
 +
=== History ===
 +
 
 +
=== Fretless Gourd-lute ===
 +
 
 +
Chitra vina is..
 +
 
 +
=== Sitar ===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Modern Veena ==
 +
 
 +
Mohan...
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Bowed Chordophones ==
 +
 
 +
===  ===
 +
 
 +
== Table of Veena: ==
 
<table border="1">
 
<table border="1">
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
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<table border="1">
 
<table border="1">
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>'''sarangi''' [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q608650 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarangi en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/79f5331d-d17c-4c2e-8ad0-44144432a754 mb]<br>
+
<td>jantar</td>
hindustani classical music, rajasthani folk sarangi, <br>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200302184607if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_j/jantar_rajasthan.png</td>
sarangi type:<br>
 
kashmir (saran)<br>
 
south afghanistan (sarang)<br>
 
jammu (saranga)<br></td>
 
<td>https://graphic.nobody.jp/musical_picture/sarangi_india_2.jpg</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>'''sarinda''' [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q348878 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarinda en] [https://tickets.metabrainz.org/browse/INST-856 jira], is related to and may derive from central asian shamans-fiddle qobuz (kobys?)<br>
+
<td>rudra veena</td>
widespread:<br>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200206001418if_/https://graphic.nobody.jp/musical_picture/veena_rudra.jpg</td>
afghanistan, pakistan and north india (sarinda)<br>
 
: pakistani baluchistan (saroz)<br>
 
: iranian baluchistan (sorud (soruz)) derived from qobuz but more like indian types in use and construction, used for ritual<br>
 
: pakistani sind (surando) sindi and baluchi models have deeper upper bouts than sarinda<br>
 
rajasthan (surinda) three main strings<br>
 
Assam (sareja)<br>
 
: ''bengal (variant long necked svaraj)(belongs to sitar maybe?)''<br>
 
manipur north-east india (sananta)<br>
 
: east & north india (banam)<br>
 
: nepal (sarangi)<br></td>
 
<td>https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/sarinda.gif</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>nepali sarangi [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q7423131 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarangi_(Nepali) en] MB!(?)<br>
+
<td>vichitra veena</td>
type of lute, evolved from the <strikeout>rabab</strikeout> includes this and the</td>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200206001415if_/https://graphic.nobody.jp/musical_picture/veena_vichitra.jpg</td>
<td>https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/sarangi_nepal.gif</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>ghaychak [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1521728 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghaychak en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/d50ba107-4930-4e0b-8b3f-ffbea4a1ade1 mb] [https://tickets.metabrainz.org/browse/INST-371 jira]</td>
+
<td>saraswati veena</td>
<td>cell 2</td>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200206001410if_/https://graphic.nobody.jp/musical_picture/veena_saraswati.jpg</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>in its family evolved from the kobyz [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1778051 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kobyz en] [https://tickets.metabrainz.org/browse/INST-439 jira]. (kobyz, ghaychak, sarangi)<br></td>
+
<td>chitra veena</td>
<td>https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_k/kobyz.gif</td>
+
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>dhodro banam aka Santal lute<br>
+
<td>hansa veena<br>
east & north india (dhodro banam)
+
original indian slide guitar</td>
</td>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200206001429if_/https://saisaibatake.ame-zaiku.com/gakki/imgi2/hansa_veena.png</td>
<td>cell 2</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>kachva sitar aka kacchapi vina</td>
+
<td>mohan veena</td>
<td>Cell 2</td>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200206001422if_/https://saisaibatake.ame-zaiku.com/musical/instruments/mohanveena.jpg</td>
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Kyl kyyak [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q13170382 wd] [https://ky.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D1%8B%D0%BB_%D0%BA%D1%8B%D1%8F%D0%BA ky] [https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kyl_kyyak&oldid=257894745 en] mb!</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
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hindustani sitar seems to have more in common with large uzbek dutar [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1143814 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutar en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/b3cf8cff-f7c7-4311-bf4e-cfc09bdb07ca mb] than persian setar [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1544746 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setar en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/f1299271-c5d7-4f7c-8b72-d64aa152c3bb mb]<br>
 
hindustani sitar seems to have more in common with large uzbek dutar [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1143814 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutar en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/b3cf8cff-f7c7-4311-bf4e-cfc09bdb07ca mb] than persian setar [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1544746 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setar en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/f1299271-c5d7-4f7c-8b72-d64aa152c3bb mb]<br>
 
sitar and souther tambura [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3541715 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanb%C5%ABra_(lyre) en] MB! (how relates to drone tanbura? [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1164636 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanpura en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/a19ae157-702a-40c6-892f-9bcb97328b7b mb]) to be evolved from the dutar?<br>
 
sitar and souther tambura [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3541715 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanb%C5%ABra_(lyre) en] MB! (how relates to drone tanbura? [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1164636 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanpura en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/a19ae157-702a-40c6-892f-9bcb97328b7b mb]) to be evolved from the dutar?<br>
also Sarasvati vina from this?<br>
+
Kinnari vina develped into Sarasvati vina<ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saraswati_veena#History</ref><br>
 
sitar has frets, tambura not<br>
 
sitar has frets, tambura not<br>
 
terms "fretted and unfretted tambura" used to distinguish between sitar and fretless drone taMbura<br>
 
terms "fretted and unfretted tambura" used to distinguish between sitar and fretless drone taMbura<br>
Line 77: Line 99:
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
modern:<br>  
 
modern:<br>  
most common: <u>Hindustani concert sitar</u> aka tarafdar sitar (singel gourd and duble gourd)<br>
+
most common: <u>Hindustani concert sitar</u> aka tarafdar sitar (single gourd and double gourd)<br>
 
: has sympathetic strings, this is mostly commonly just called sitar and is the standard made <br>
 
: has sympathetic strings, this is mostly commonly just called sitar and is the standard made <br>
<u>sada sitar</u> (plain or practice sitar)<br>
 
 
<u>kachva sitar</u> muhammad khan developed the surbahar from this, name probably a ref to the part of the gourd its used from.<br>
 
<u>kachva sitar</u> muhammad khan developed the surbahar from this, name probably a ref to the part of the gourd its used from.<br>
small sitar (kinnari veena)<br>
+
</td>
carnatic sitar<br></td>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20160417012026if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/sitar.gif</td>
<td>https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/sitar.gif</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>Cell 1</td>
+
<td>kachva sitar</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
<tr>
+
<td>surbahar [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q980383 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surbahar en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/1ed558ad-1628-4e5f-8d14-e18e54375cd5 mb]<br>
<td>Cell 1</td>
+
effectively a bass sitar. invented c1820 by ghulam muhammad<br></td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>Cell 1</td>
+
<td>tanpura aka tambura aka tanpur (etc)</td>
<td>Cell 2</td>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20160114205226if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_t/tanpura.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>Cell 1</td>
+
<td>Afghan rubab [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1640934 wd] [https://beta.musicbrainz.org/instrument/7e42e637-c7b4-422c-ad56-f7fafbd961bb mb]<br>
<td>Cell 2</td>
+
(Kabuli rebab)</td>
 +
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191221043431if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_r/rabab_arabia.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>Cell 1</td>
+
<td>Seni rebab [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q7450625 wd] [https://beta.musicbrainz.org/instrument/9869ff82-9ba5-41a7-b2b2-e19f4e4a1083 mb]</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>Cell 1</td>
+
<td>'''Sursingar''' [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2372387 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sursingar en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/efca0287-2791-4209-b29b-1019891cb8d2 mb] hybrid plucked north indian classical lute invented c1800 by jaffar khan (seniya family)<br>
<td>Cell 2</td>
+
resonator, front and bridge from sitar, upperpart of neck/pegboard like the '''rabab''', tuned and played like '''rabab''', plectrum like sitar.<br>
 +
(clearly this is a sitar/rabab hybrid)<br></td>
 +
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200206002205if_/https://saisaibatake.ame-zaiku.com/musical/instruments/sursringar_i.jpg</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>Cell 1</td>
+
<td>sarod  [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q687406 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarod en] [https://beta.musicbrainz.org/instrument/97d2aa1e-b5e6-4930-ab0e-f2cfe508b253 mb]</td>
<td>Cell 2</td>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20160511013835if_/https://saisaibatake.ame-zaiku.com/gakki/imgi/sarod_i.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
<td>surbahar [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q980383 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surbahar en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/1ed558ad-1628-4e5f-8d14-e18e54375cd5 mb]<br>
+
<tr>
effectively a bass sitar. invented c1820 by ghulam muhammad<br></td>
+
<td>swarabat [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Special:EntityPage/Q7653835 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swarabat en] [https://tickets.metabrainz.org/browse/INST-983 jira]<br>
<td>Cell 2</td>
+
sarod from the south</td>
 +
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200317195216if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/swarabat.jpg</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
<td>'''Sursingar''' [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2372387 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sursingar en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/efca0287-2791-4209-b29b-1019891cb8d2 mb] hybrid plucked north indian classical lute invented c1800 by jaffar khan (seniya family)<br>
+
<tr>
resonator, front and bridge from sitar, upperpart of neck/pegboard like the '''rabab''', tuned and played like '''rabab''', plectrum like sitar.<br>
+
<td>Chikara [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q5097384 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chikara_(instrument) en] [https://tickets.metabrainz.org/browse/INST-955 jira]</td>
(clearly this is a sitar/rabab hybrid)<br>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191220143300if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_c/chikara.jpg</td>
it has a sub-branch the sitariya (see sitar -_-)<br></td>
 
<td>https://saisaibatake.ame-zaiku.com/musical/instruments/sursringar_i.jpg</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>Cell 1</td>
+
<td>kamayacha [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q87826372 wd] [https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Kamayacha commons] mb!</td>
<td>Cell 2</td>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191218175859if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_k/kamaicha.gif</td>
</tr>
 
<td>'''svaraj''' fretless long necked plucked lute from bangladesj, it is a bangl version of the bengali/northindian dotara, it ought to be spelled saraj (see esraj) <br></td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>esraj<br>
+
<td>pulluvan veena [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q55525195 wd] [https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulluvan_vina ge] mb!</td>
a kind of cross between sitar and sarangi, it is a modern variant of dilruba<ref name="Esraj på Svenskwiki">{{Cite web|url=https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esraj}}</ref><br>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200206001442if_/https://saisaibatake.ame-zaiku.com/gakkipedia/img/pulluvan-veena.gif</td>
Ishwari Raj</td>
 
<td>https://graphic.nobody.jp/musical_picture/esraj_2.jpg</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>dilruba<br>
+
<td>Cell 1</td>
Dilruba is a compacter, mobiler instrument, is based on the heavier Taus<ref name="esraj at en.wiki">{{Cite web|url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esraj#History|title=Esraj History}}</ref><br>
+
<td>Cell 2</td>
Guru Gobind Singh
 
</td>
 
<td>https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_d/dilruba.gif</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>taus </td>
 
<td>taus </td>
<td>https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_t/taus.gif</td>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191228042044if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_t/taus.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>mayuri-vina<br></td>
 
<td>mayuri-vina<br></td>
<td>https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_m/mayuri_veena.gif</td>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191223221916if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_m/mayuri_veena.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>[[User:CatCat/yazh-yazhoo|yazh]]</td>
+
<td>dilruba<br>
<td>https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_y/yazh.gif</td>
+
Dilruba is a compacter, mobiler instrument, is based on the heavier Taus<ref name="esraj at en.wiki">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esraj#History</ref><br>
 +
Guru Gobind Singh</td>
 +
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191220220752if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_d/dilruba.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>saung gauk</td>
+
<td>esraj<br>
<td>https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/saunggauk.gif</td>
+
a kind of cross between sitar and sarangi, it is a modern variant of dilruba<ref name="Esraj på Svenskwiki">https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esraj</ref><br>
 +
Ishwari Raj<br>
 +
(how is related to svaraj?)</td>
 +
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200206002214if_/https://graphic.nobody.jp/musical_picture/esraj_2.jpg</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>Cell 1</td>
+
<td>'''sarangi''' [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q608650 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarangi en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/79f5331d-d17c-4c2e-8ad0-44144432a754 mb]<br>
<td>Cell 2</td>
+
hindustani classical music<br>
 +
there might be other types</td>
 +
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200205230058if_/https://graphic.nobody.jp/musical_picture/sarangi_india_2.jpg</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>Cell 1</td>
+
<td>'''sarinda''' [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q348878 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarinda en] [https://tickets.metabrainz.org/browse/INST-856 jira]<br>
<td>Cell 2</td>
+
Related to other folk fiddles like qobuz, saroz, sorud, surando, surinda, sareja, svaraj, banam, nepali sarangi.<br></td>
 +
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191219134928if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/sarinda.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>Cell 1</td>
+
<td>nepali sarangi [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q7423131 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarangi_(Nepali) en] MB!(?)<br>
<td>Cell 2</td>
+
Type of lute, evolved from the Boat-shaped rabab (kabuli rabab)</td>
 +
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191218153957if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/sarangi_nepal.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
Line 176: Line 199:
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>bin-sitar</td>
+
<td>Cell 1</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 +
== harplike/veena ==
 +
* taus/mayuri veena/b
 +
* yazh
 +
* saung/saung-gauk/
 +
 +
<table border="1">
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>kamaica</td>
+
<td>[[User:CatCat/yazh-yazhoo|yazh]]<br>
<td>Cell 2</td>
+
Mayil Yazh<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20110927234750/http://www.chennaimuseum.org/draft/gallery/02/01/musinst2.htm</ref><br>
 +
Vil Yazh<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20110927234851/http://www.chennaimuseum.org/draft/gallery/02/01/musinst3.htm</ref></td>
 +
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191220095908if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_y/yazh.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>ravanhattha</td>
+
<td>saung gauk</td>
<td>Cell 2</td>
+
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200212130253if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/saunggauk.gif</td>
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>khuur (mongolian fiddles)</td>
 
<td>https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_m/morin_khuur.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Cell 1</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
.....<br>
 
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
sara<br>
 
surs<br>
 
suba<br>
 
sita<br>
 
saro<br>
 
sari<br>
 
banam(rebs)<br>
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
'''rabab'''-> sarod<br>
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/From-Tri-tantri-Veena-to-Sitar/articleshow/21391436.cms and images on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tritantri_vina and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setar (compare image on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitar ) makes it clear that it is the setar that is evolved from the tritantri veena - the sitar https://beta.musicbrainz.org/instrument/9290b2c1-97c3-4355-a26f-c6dba89cf8ff/ an unrelated (but possible distant cousin) was *named* after the Persian setar.
 

Latest revision as of 15:47, 22 March 2020

Veena or vina

Early history

Initially used as a name for any chordophone, ancient "veena" were musical bows with increasing strings such as these later developed into Harp veena like yazh and the burmese saung gauk.
concordantly, short necked lutes originating from graeco-buddhist northwestern gandhara province. these where played standing but held variously, pearshaped pipa-like lutes appear in peninsular India, these were played sitting or standing. kaccapi vina is believed to be lute-type.

Medieval Stick Zither

Medieval Stick Zither type veena. gradually replacing the previous harp and short-neck lute type, many folk instruments are these. principal types are alapini vina, ekatantri vina, and kinnari vina.


Folk Stick Zither

Of note is tuila, kullutna rajan, and also the jantar, which are Folk Stick-zithers

The Bīn

Fretless Stick Zither

The Vicitrā vīṇā is the northern fretless instrument, it is a Stick Zither, but this is actually of the hybrid bīṇ sitār type: it has a wide neck (about 10 cm) which is D shaped with the sympathetic strings' pegs set in the side. The neck ends in an integrated wood resonator, often carved like a peacock's head, in some cases it is smaller and pear-shaped, in others it is larger like the sitar's. The hollow neck has two large bottle-gourds screwed into the back. The main strings are tuned in descending 4th and 5ths, the slider (baṭṭā) is a glass egg.


Saraswatī Vīṇā

History

Fretless Gourd-lute

Chitra vina is..

Sitar

Modern Veena

Mohan...



Bowed Chordophones

Table of Veena:

Cell 1 Cell 2
jantar jantar_rajasthan.png
rudra veena veena_rudra.jpg
vichitra veena veena_vichitra.jpg
saraswati veena veena_saraswati.jpg
chitra veena Cell 2
hansa veena
original indian slide guitar
hansa_veena.png
mohan veena mohanveena.jpg
sitar wd en mb

hindustani sitar seems to have more in common with large uzbek dutar wd en mb than persian setar wd en mb
sitar and souther tambura wd en MB! (how relates to drone tanbura? wd en mb) to be evolved from the dutar?
Kinnari vina develped into Sarasvati vina[1]
sitar has frets, tambura not
terms "fretted and unfretted tambura" used to distinguish between sitar and fretless drone taMbura

sursotta (transportable drone tambura)

other sitar types: (distribution and related features suggest a common development)
carnatic sitar
kashmiri setar
afghan tanbur
gujarati sittarae(poss)

modern:
most common: Hindustani concert sitar aka tarafdar sitar (single gourd and double gourd)

has sympathetic strings, this is mostly commonly just called sitar and is the standard made

kachva sitar muhammad khan developed the surbahar from this, name probably a ref to the part of the gourd its used from.

sitar.gif
kachva sitar Cell 2
surbahar wd en mb
effectively a bass sitar. invented c1820 by ghulam muhammad
Cell 2
tanpura aka tambura aka tanpur (etc) tanpura.gif
Afghan rubab wd mb
(Kabuli rebab)
rabab_arabia.gif
Seni rebab wd mb Cell 2
Sursingar wd en mb hybrid plucked north indian classical lute invented c1800 by jaffar khan (seniya family)

resonator, front and bridge from sitar, upperpart of neck/pegboard like the rabab, tuned and played like rabab, plectrum like sitar.

(clearly this is a sitar/rabab hybrid)
sursringar_i.jpg
sarod wd en mb sarod_i.gif
swarabat wd en jira
sarod from the south
swarabat.jpg
Chikara wd en jira chikara.jpg
kamayacha wd commons mb! kamaicha.gif
pulluvan veena wd ge mb! pulluvan-veena.gif
Cell 1 Cell 2
taus taus.gif
mayuri-vina
mayuri_veena.gif
dilruba

Dilruba is a compacter, mobiler instrument, is based on the heavier Taus[2]

Guru Gobind Singh
dilruba.gif
esraj

a kind of cross between sitar and sarangi, it is a modern variant of dilruba[3]
Ishwari Raj

(how is related to svaraj?)
esraj_2.jpg
sarangi wd en mb

hindustani classical music

there might be other types
sarangi_india_2.jpg
sarinda wd en jira
Related to other folk fiddles like qobuz, saroz, sorud, surando, surinda, sareja, svaraj, banam, nepali sarangi.
sarinda.gif
nepali sarangi wd en MB!(?)
Type of lute, evolved from the Boat-shaped rabab (kabuli rabab)
sarangi_nepal.gif
Cell 1 Cell 2
Cell 1 Cell 2

harplike/veena

  • taus/mayuri veena/b
  • yazh
  • saung/saung-gauk/
yazh

Mayil Yazh[4]

Vil Yazh[5]
yazh.gif
saung gauk saunggauk.gif