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Veena or vina
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= Veena or vina =
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== Early history ==
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Initially used as a name for any chordophone, ancient "veena" were musical bows with increasing strings such as
 +
these later developed into Harp veena like yazh and the burmese saung gauk.<br>
 +
concordantly, short necked lutes originating from graeco-buddhist northwestern gandhara province. these where played standing but held variously, pearshaped pipa-like lutes appear in peninsular India, these were played sitting or standing. kaccapi vina is believed to be lute-type.
 +
 
 +
== Medieval Stick Zither ==
 +
Medieval Stick Zither type veena
  
 
Veena:
 
Veena:
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<table border="1">
 
<table border="1">
<tr>
 
<td>'''sarangi''' [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q608650 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarangi en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/79f5331d-d17c-4c2e-8ad0-44144432a754 mb]<br>
 
hindustani classical music, rajasthani folk sarangi, <br>
 
sarangi type:<br>
 
kashmir (saran)<br>
 
south afghanistan (sarang)<br>
 
jammu (saranga)<br></td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200205230058if_/https://graphic.nobody.jp/musical_picture/sarangi_india_2.jpg</td>
 
</tr>
 
 
<tr>
 
<td>'''sarinda''' [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q348878 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarinda en] [https://tickets.metabrainz.org/browse/INST-856 jira], is related to and may derive from central asian shamans-fiddle qobuz (kobys?)<br>
 
widespread:<br>
 
afghanistan, pakistan and north india (sarinda)<br>
 
: pakistani baluchistan (saroz)<br>
 
: iranian baluchistan (sorud (soruz)) derived from qobuz but more like indian types in use and construction, used for ritual<br>
 
: pakistani sind (surando) sindi and baluchi models have deeper upper bouts than sarinda<br>
 
rajasthan (surinda) three main strings<br>
 
Assam (sareja)<br>
 
: ''bengal (variant long necked svaraj)(belongs to sitar maybe?)''<br>
 
manipur north-east india (sananta)<br>
 
: east & north india (banam)<br>
 
: nepal (sarangi)<br></td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191219134928if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/sarinda.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
 
<tr>
 
<td>nepali sarangi [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q7423131 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarangi_(Nepali) en] MB!(?)<br>
 
type of lute, evolved from the <strikeout>rabab</strikeout> includes this and the</td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191218153957if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/sarangi_nepal.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>ghaychak [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1521728 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghaychak en] [https://musicbrainz.org/instrument/d50ba107-4930-4e0b-8b3f-ffbea4a1ade1 mb] [https://tickets.metabrainz.org/browse/INST-371 jira]</td>
 
<td>cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
 
<tr>
 
<td>in its family evolved from the kobyz [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1778051 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kobyz en] [https://tickets.metabrainz.org/browse/INST-439 jira]. (kobyz, ghaychak, sarangi)<br></td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191217110929if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_k/kobyz.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>dhodro banam aka Santal lute<br>
 
east & north india (dhodro banam)</td>
 
<td>cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Kyl kyyak [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q13170382 wd] [https://ky.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D1%8B%D0%BB_%D0%BA%D1%8B%D1%8F%D0%BA ky] [https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kyl_kyyak&oldid=257894745 en] mb!</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>rabab</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Chikara [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q5097384 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chikara_(instrument) en] [https://tickets.metabrainz.org/browse/INST-955 jira]</td>
 
<td>Chikara [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q5097384 wd] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chikara_(instrument) en] [https://tickets.metabrainz.org/browse/INST-955 jira]</td>
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</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>dotara</td>
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<td>Cell 1</td>
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20140604010127if_/https://saisaibatake.ame-zaiku.com/gakki/imgi2/dotara_i.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>'''svaraj''' fretless long necked plucked lute from bangladesj, it is a bangl version of the bengali/northindian dotara, it ought to be spelled saraj (see esraj) </td>
 
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
<tr>
+
</table>
<td>esraj<br>
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a kind of cross between sitar and sarangi, it is a modern variant of dilruba<ref name="Esraj på Svenskwiki">{{Cite web|url=https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esraj}}</ref><br>
+
 
Ishwari Raj<br>
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<table border="1">
</td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200206002214if_/https://graphic.nobody.jp/musical_picture/esraj_2.jpg</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Mandar Bahar [http://collections.nmmusd.org/India/2405MandarBahar/MandarBahar2405.html nmm] wd? mb!<br>
 
bass esraj</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>dilruba<br>
 
Dilruba is a compacter, mobiler instrument, is based on the heavier Taus<ref name="esraj at en.wiki">{{Cite web|url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esraj#History|title=Esraj History}}</ref><br>
 
Guru Gobind Singh
 
</td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191220220752if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_d/dilruba.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>taus </td>
 
<td>taus </td>
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<td>saung gauk</td>
 
<td>saung gauk</td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191217235340if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/saunggauk.gif</td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191217235340if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_s/saunggauk.gif</td>
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Cell 1</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>ektara (actually gopichant)</td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191220232603if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_g/gopichant.gif<br>
 
http://web.archive.org/web/20200206004750if_/https://saisaibatake.ame-zaiku.com/gakki/imgi/gopichant3.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>ektar (actually tumbi)</td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20160416194455if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_t/tumbi.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>dutar</td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200206003251if_/https://graphic.nobody.jp/musical_picture/dutar_2.jpg</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>setar</td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20160511014833if_/https://saisaibatake.ame-zaiku.com/gakki/imgi/setar_i.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>bin-sitar</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>kamaica</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>ravanhattha</td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20200206002924if_/https://graphic.nobody.jp/musical_picture/ravanhatta_2.jpg</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>khuur (mongolian fiddles)</td>
 
<td>http://web.archive.org/web/20191218153959if_/https://digitalstamp.suppa.jp/musical_instruments_m/morin_khuur.gif</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>Cell 1</td>
 
<td>Cell 2</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
.....<br>
 
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
sara<br>
 
surs<br>
 
suba<br>
 
sita<br>
 
saro<br>
 
sari<br>
 
banam(rebs)<br>
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
'''rabab'''-> sarod<br>
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/From-Tri-tantri-Veena-to-Sitar/articleshow/21391436.cms and images on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tritantri_vina and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setar (compare image on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitar ) makes it clear that it is the setar that is evolved from the tritantri veena - the sitar https://beta.musicbrainz.org/instrument/9290b2c1-97c3-4355-a26f-c6dba89cf8ff/ an unrelated (but possible distant cousin) was *named* after the Persian setar.
 

Revision as of 13:02, 12 February 2020

Veena or vina

Early history

Initially used as a name for any chordophone, ancient "veena" were musical bows with increasing strings such as these later developed into Harp veena like yazh and the burmese saung gauk.
concordantly, short necked lutes originating from graeco-buddhist northwestern gandhara province. these where played standing but held variously, pearshaped pipa-like lutes appear in peninsular India, these were played sitting or standing. kaccapi vina is believed to be lute-type.

Medieval Stick Zither

Medieval Stick Zither type veena

Veena:

Cell 1 Cell 2
Chikara wd en jira chikara.jpg
sarod sarod_i.gif
Sursingar wd en mb hybrid plucked north indian classical lute invented c1800 by jaffar khan (seniya family)

resonator, front and bridge from sitar, upperpart of neck/pegboard like the rabab, tuned and played like rabab, plectrum like sitar.

(clearly this is a sitar/rabab hybrid)
sursringar_i.jpg
sitar wd en mb

hindustani sitar seems to have more in common with large uzbek dutar wd en mb than persian setar wd en mb
sitar and souther tambura wd en MB! (how relates to drone tanbura? wd en mb) to be evolved from the dutar?
also Sarasvati vina from this?
sitar has frets, tambura not
terms "fretted and unfretted tambura" used to distinguish between sitar and fretless drone taMbura

sursotta (transportable drone tambura)

other sitar types: (distribution and related features suggest a common development)
carnatic sitar
kashmiri setar
afghan tanbur
gujarati sittarae(poss)

modern:
most common: Hindustani concert sitar aka tarafdar sitar (singel gourd and duble gourd)

has sympathetic strings, this is mostly commonly just called sitar and is the standard made

sada sitar (plain or practice sitar)
kachva sitar muhammad khan developed the surbahar from this, name probably a ref to the part of the gourd its used from.
small sitar (kinnari veena)

carnatic sitar
sitar.gif
kachva sitar aka kacchapi vina Cell 2
surbahar wd en mb
effectively a bass sitar. invented c1820 by ghulam muhammad
Cell 2
tanpura aka tambura aka tanpur (etc) tanpura_ia.gif
saraswati veena veena_saraswati.jpg
vichitra veena veena_vichitra.jpg
rudra veena veena_rudra.jpg
mohan veena mohanveena.jpg
hansa veena
?(novelty)
hansa_veena.png
pulluvan veena wd ge mb! pulluvan-veena.gif
Cell 1 Cell 2
Cell 1 Cell 2
Cell 1 Cell 2


taus taus.gif
mayuri-vina
mayuri_veena.gif
yazh yazh.gif
saung gauk saunggauk.gif