Difference between revisions of "User:Symphonick/CSG Work Titles"

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|proposal=CSG Works part II: Titles
 
|proposal=CSG Works part II: Titles
 
|champion=[[User:symphonick|symphonick]]
 
|champion=[[User:symphonick|symphonick]]
|status=RFC
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|status=on hold
 
|discussion=
 
|discussion=
 
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==Overview==
+
==Summary==
[[File:works_score1_beta.png]]
+
#Try to establish the original title in the original language and use this in the title field.
 +
#All other titles should be in aliases.
 +
#One catalogue number can be added to the title field, but no other information, except for 4)
 +
#See untitled works when there is no explicit title or any lyrics to quote.
  
 
==Title==
 
==Title==
The work title field in MusicBrainz should only contain the title given by the composer, sometimes along with a [[#Catalogue numbers|catalogue number]], unless you are dealing with a so-called [[#Untitled work|untitled work]], see below.<br />
+
The work title field should only contain the title given by the composer, in the language the work was originally written. This is not necessarily the composer's preferred language, also consider if the work was written with a specific performance or audience (country) in mind. See the respective CSG-language pages for how to format language-specific details.<br />
 +
One [[#Catalogue numbers|catalogue number]] can be added to this title ''(as a workaround until catalogues can have specific fields)''.<br />
 +
[[#Untitled work|Untitled works]], where the composer has only titled the work with a form or a character/tempo (concerto, symphony, allegro etc) have special guidelines, see separate section below.<br />
 +
 
 +
It is recommended to use printed scores as sources for titles. For example [http://imslp.org/wiki/Main_Page| IMSLP] have downloadable scans of old music, often early editions and autographs (common places for an original title to be found).''<br />
 +
If that is not available, just <u>use the best source you can find</u>. Titles can be corrected later.<br />
 +
 
 +
===Titled works variants===
 +
*Title
 +
*Title, [[#Catalogue numbers| catalogue number]]
 +
*[[#Part numbers| Part number]]. Title<br />
 +
 
 +
''Examples:''
 +
*[[Work:d2fbf91c-f3a6-4667-a892-56d615f56e23|Jeu de cartes]] ''by Stravinskij''
  
The title is usually found at the top of the first page of the score, in a large typeface. In some cases, the full title is only printed on the front page, and the title in the actual score is a shorter version.<br />
+
*[[Work:426b7e1c-68e7-42cf-9cae-4ba34feddf67|The Messiah, HWV 56]] ''by G.F. Händel''
 +
*(part number example goes here)
  
''Examples:''<br />
+
===Score overview===
*[[Work:561b8302-1b1a-3b7e-b4dd-ea3f8e0b3258|The Lark Ascending]]
+
In the score the title is usually found at the top of the first page of the score, in a large typeface (see below). But in some cases, the full title is only printed on the front page, and the title printed in the actual score is a shorter version.<br />
*I Crisantemi
 
*[[Work:45efd8f4-4c40-4145-9e5c-4d11ed7babde|Carmen]]
 
  
===Sources===
+
[[File:works_score1_beta.png]]
It is recommended to use a reliable printed source for titles, such as a recent [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urtext_edition| urtext edition].
 
If that is not available, just use the best source you can find. Titles can be corrected later.<br />
 
  
*''Publishing companies (Bärenreiter, Henle etc) sometimes list titles on their websites.
+
''Note that this is just one example of how a score could look like.''
*[http://imslp.org/wiki/Main_Page| IMSLP] have downloadable scans of old music, mostly early editions or user-generated scores.''
 
  
{{note}} Wikipedia and similar online sources cannot be considered reliable in this context.
+
===Catalogue numbers===
 +
Ideally catalogue should be put in specific fields, but since catalogue numbers are an important part of identifying a work, as a workaround one catalogue number can be appended to the title. If more than one catalogue is used for a work, try to find the most commonly used catalogue.<br />
 +
Exact formatting depends on the specific catalogue, e.g. certain catalogues have a dot before the number etc.<br />
  
===Archaic titles===
+
''Examples:''
If the original title by the composer is rarely used, put the "modern" title in the disambiguation comment field.<br />
+
*Winterreise, D 911 ''by F. Schubert''
''Examples:''<br />
+
*Falstaff, op. 68 ''by E. Elgar''
*Méditation sur le Premier Prélude de Piano de S. Bach. ("Bach/Gounod Ave Maria")
+
*Missa in Angustiis, Hob. XXII:11 ''by J. Haydn''
*Passio Domini Nostri J.C. Secundum Evangelistam Matthaeum ("Matthäus-Passion")
+
*Die Zauberflöte, K. 620 ''by W.A. Mozart''
  
===Untitled works===
+
====Part works catalogue====
Instrumental music and some vocal music from before the 20th century often has no actual title. Instead these works are referred to using their form and/or instrumentation (ex. sonata, quartet, mass, symphony, cello concerto), sometimes with key.<br/ >
+
Usually only main works have a catalogue, but note that collections of standalone works (which looks like a main work with parts in MusicBrainz), is treated like standalone works in this regard.<br />
  
{{note}} This is only for untitled works, otherwise the type of work (e.g. aria, sonata, trio) is stored in the work type field, not in the title.
+
''Examples:''
 +
*Mazurka, op. 17 no. 4
  
====Standard untitled works formats====
+
===Part numbers===
*Form
+
Only part numbers given by the composer may be used in the title field. Do not add your own numbering of parts.<br />
*Form [[#Keys in untitled works| key]]
 
*Form [[#Instrumentation| instrumentation]]
 
*Form instrumentation key
 
*Form instrumentation number key
 
  
All the above combinations can also have one [[#Catalogue numbers| catalogue number]].  
+
''Examples:''
 +
*Gloria (Mozart: Krönungsmesse)
 +
*But who may abide (Händel: The Messiah)
 +
*No. 3. Denn die Herrlichkeit Gottes des Herrn (Händel: The Messiah, "Mozart" arrangement, KV 572)
 +
*? No. 4. Recitativo accompagnato ed Aria
 +
**So spricht der Herr
 +
**Doch wer mag ertragen den Tag seiner Ankunft
  
*[[#Tempo / character | tempo / character]]
+
====Part ordering====
*Character, catalogue
+
Unfortunately there is currently no ordering system available in MusicBrainz. Until a solution is in place, the disambiguation field can be used if necessary; e.g. "Allegro (1st mvt)" vs. "Allegro (3rd mvt).''
*Part number. Character
 
  
''Other combinations are possible but unusual.''<br/ >
+
===Other titles===
 +
Titles not by the composer should be in separate aliases. This includes:
 +
* "Modern" titles, when the original title by the composer is rarely used
 +
* Nicknames, such as "Moonlight Sonata" ''(more common with untitled works)''
 +
* Translated titles, such as "The Firebird" and "Christmas Oratorio". Only use existing translations, do not enter your own.
 +
* Works that have both a title by the composer and a generic version of the title (that can contain ordering numbers not in the original title)
  
If and what to append to the basic form depends entirely on the context. Try to follow convention, the title field should not be used to put in general information (like keys and instrumentation) when it is not needed for disambiguation '''and it is how you usually would refer to this work'''.<br/ >
+
As there can be only one primary alias per language; try to find the standard title for your specific language. More titles can be entered as secondary aliases.<br />
For instance, if a composer only wrote one concerto for a specific instrument, ex. cello, that concerto would likely be known simply as that composer's cello concerto, the key would not be used in the title.<br/ >
+
Using the disambiguation field can be problematic since these titles are often local, while the disambiguation field is global. E.g. a French nickname is usually translated, if it exists at all in English.<br/ >
A prelude by J.S. Bach is often referred to by key (ex. "Prelude in d-minor") while a prelude from an instrumental suite is usually referred to as the "prelude from the G-major suite", as an example.<br/ >
 
  
 
''Examples:''<br />
 
''Examples:''<br />
*[[Work:68b83a92-1a10-3289-aa97-04bc174ef3a1|Overture]]
+
*Méditation sur le Premier Prélude de Piano de S. Bach. ''by Bach/Gounod'' '''alias''' ''(all languages)'': Ave Maria
*[[Work:48ef3f49-8438-368b-9b09-0b1ab281ac15|Ouverture]]
+
*Passio Domini Nostri J.C. Secundum Evangelistam Matthaeum ''by J.S. Bach'' '''German alias:''' Matthäus-Passion
 +
*[[Work:41cc50ef-631e-42e5-ae4c-7bdf5e16cff4|Москва, Черемушки, Op. 105]] ''by D. Schostakovich'', '''English alias:''' Moscow, Cheryomushki, Op. 105
 +
* Sonata quasi una fantasia, Op. 27 No. 1 ''by Beethoven'' '''English alias:''' Piano Sonata No. 13 in Eb-flat major, Op. 27 No. 1
 +
* Sonata quasi una fantasia, Op. 27 No. 2 ''by Beethoven'' '''English search hint alias:''' Moonlight Sonata
 +
* [[work:f210c793-f668-413c-8821-3628b3c55483|Konzert in C, K. 467]] ''by W.A. Mozart'' '''English search hint alias:''' Elvira Madigan
 +
* [[work:b0d23c87-c845-4989-b2c6-38803fcee6db|Всенощное бдение, op. 37]] ''by S. Rachmaninoff'' '''English search hint alias:''' Vespers
 +
 
 +
''It is expected that eventually, both a title (alias) in the user's preferred language AND the default work title can be shown in the UI.''<br />
 +
 
 +
==Other information from the score==
 +
The information from the categories below should not be added to the title field for titled works (use the annotation if necessary), but can be useful when dealing with untitled works.
 +
 
 +
===Instrumentation===
 +
Ex. "for flute and piano", "for strings" etc.
 +
 
 +
===Tempo / character===
 +
Ex. allegro, moderato, slow.
  
====Generic titles by the composer====
+
===Key / Modus===
If a composer has titled a work using (among other words) the form, this is regarded as an actual title and should not be altered, even if the work also can be described using form/instrumentation/key.<br />
+
Ex. "G-Dur", "en Si bemol", "A-flat major" etc. See the CSG-language pages for details.  
  
''Examples:''<br />
+
==="Subtitle"===
*Ouvertüre nach Französischer Art, BWV 831
+
The subtitle line(s) in the score and on the title page can contain a variety of information related to the music. Usually you will find a description of the instrumentation, but pretty much anything can be added here by the composer or by the editor.<br/ >  
*Sonata quasi una fantasia, Op. 27 No. 2
 
  
===Language===
+
''Examples of what can be printed as subtitle:''
As stated before, the title should be expressed in the language the work was originally written.
+
*Foxtrot for orchestra (from Nixon in China)
If a work is available with translated titles and it is unclear which is the original, use the language of the first performance (if the work was written with a specific performance or audience in mind). If this fails, use the composer's preferred language, usually found in the autograph or first edition.<br />
+
*Торжественная увертюра (1812)
 +
*in G minor, S. 1001 (J.S. Bach: Violin Sonata)
 +
*Komponiert 1851 (Schumann: Violin sonata)
 +
*Épisode de la vie d'un Artiste ... en cinq parties (Berlioz: Symphony Fantastique)
 +
*mit Schluss-Chor über Schillers Ode: "An die Freude" für grosses Orchester, 4 Solo- und 4 Chor-Stimmen, componirt und seiner Majestaet dem König von Preussen Friedrich Wilhelm III. in liebster Ehrfurcht zugeeignet von Ludwig van Beethoven"
  
See the respective CSG-language pages for how to format language-specific details. Also see below for untitled / generic titled works.
+
For untitled works, subtitles can occasionally be used as printed or with only a slight modification (ex. "Sonate für Arpeggione und Pianoforte"). Other times, it can be taken as an indication of what perhaps should be included in the title (e.g. key and catalogue for the Bach example above) and in what language the original title should be.
  
{{note}} Works with translated lyrics (as opposed to works with only a translated title) should have the specific translation as default language.
+
===Dedication===
 +
Ex. "Dem Grafen Ferdinand von Waldstein gewidmet". Sometimes found above the title, sometimes below, or just on the front page.
  
====Language for untitled works====
+
==Vocal music==
Untitled works should be listed in the language in which the work was originally titled by the composer.
 
  
====Translated titles====
+
===Quotes===
Translated titles, such as "The Firebird" and "Christmas Oratorio" should be entered as aliases.
+
For a lot of (especially older) vocal music ''(and instrumental music based on vocal music, e.g. chorale preludes)'', there is no explicit title. Instead the title is (a part of) the first line in the lyrics.<br />
As there can be only one primary alias per language; try to find the standard translation for your specific language.
+
Try to find the most common length of the quote, if it is not available in the score.<br />  
More translations can be entered as secondary aliases.<br />
 
  
{{note}} Only use existing translations, do not enter your own.<br />
+
{{note}} Do not put quotation marks around quotes.<br />  
''It is expected that eventually, both a title (alias) in the user's preferred language AND the default work title can be shown in the UI.''
 
  
===Nicknames===
+
Titles made from quotes is treated like any other titled work in MusicBrainz; nothing else is allowed in the title field except part numbers and one catalogue number.
Nicknames (such as "Moonlight Sonata") are not by the composer. Nicknames can be used only in secondary aliases and in annotations,
 
never in the title field.<br/ >
 
Since nicknames are local, they can be problematic in the disambiguation field (which is global).
 
  
 
''Examples:''
 
''Examples:''
* Mozart’s ''[[work:f210c793-f668-413c-8821-3628b3c55483|Konzert in C, K. 467]]'' (“Elvira Madigan”)
+
*[[Work:e6c6d039-d3c0-31b5-b3c2-f58a68dfcada|No. 21. Il mio tesoro intanto]]
* Rachmaninoff’s ''[[work:b0d23c87-c845-4989-b2c6-38803fcee6db|Всенощное бдение, op. 37]]'' (“Vespers”)
+
*Vor deinen Thron tret' ich, BWV 668
 +
 
 +
====Quotes and multiple sections====
  
==Subtitle==
+
===Translations===
The line below the title can in rare cases contain a subtitle, but usually you will find a description of the instrumentation, form, or even key and/or opus. Most of the time, this line is added by the editor.
+
Works with translated lyrics (as opposed to works with only a translated title) should have the specific translation as default language.<br />
  
Subtitles should not be appended to the title, but the information can sometimes be of use for untitled works.<br/ >
+
===Dramatic roles===
If you believe a sub-title is useful for searching, put it in a secondary alias. Otherwise you can use an annotation.<br />
+
Roles (e.g. Evangelista, Carmen)
  
''Examples of what can be printed below the title:''
+
==Excerpt works==
*Foxtrot for orchestra (from Nixon in China)
+
(See http://musicbrainz.org/doc/Style/Classical/Works for an explanation)<br />
*Торжественная увертюра (1812)
+
Try to find the most commonly used title, in the same language as the lyrics. A quote from the lyrics is usually better than a descriptive title, e.g. use "Treulich geführt" rather than "Brautchor aus Lohengrin".<br />
*in G minor, S. 1001 (Bach's Violin Sonata)
+
 
*Komponiert 1851 (Violin sonata by Schumann)
+
{{note}} For primary aliases a descriptive title (e.g. "Bridal Chorus from Lohengrin" in English) may be preferred.
  
An example of an actual subtitle would be "Symphony Fantastique: Épisode de la vie d'un Artiste ... en cinq parties" by Berlioz.
+
==Untitled works==
 +
Instrumental music and some vocal music from before the 20th century often has no actual title. Instead these works are referred to using their form and/or instrumentation (ex. sonata, quartet, mass, symphony, cello concerto), sometimes with key. Untitled works should be listed in the language in which the work was originally titled by the composer.<br/ >
  
===Dedication===
+
{{note}} This is only for untitled works, otherwise the type of work (e.g. aria, sonata, trio) is stored in the work type field, not in the title.
Sometimes found above the title, sometimes below, or just on the front page. Dedications can be put in annotations.
 
  
 +
===Generic titles by the composer===
 +
If a composer has titled a work using (among other words) the form, this work is not untitled, even if the work also can be described using form/instrumentation/key.<br />
 +
An "untitled" version of the title can be added as an alias.
  
==Instrumentation==
+
''Examples:''<br />
Instrumentation can be added to the annotation.
+
*Ouvertüre nach Französischer Art, BWV 831 ''by J.S. Bach''
 +
*Sonata quasi una fantasia, Op. 27 No. 2 ''by Beethoven''
 +
*10 Märsche, um den Sieg zu verfehlen ''by Mauricio Kagel''
  
===Instrumentation for untitled works===
+
===Untitled vocal works===
Certain untitled works need basic information about instrumentation, mostly concertos and sonatas. How the instrumentation should be formatted depends on the conventions for the language in question, see the CSG-language pages. E.g. a literal translation of "Quartet for Strings" will not work for every language, perhaps the form "String quartet" is more appropriate. It could also differ between different forms & ensemble constellations for the same language.
+
Only main works of vocal music can be "untitled". When a vocal work has no distinct title, a quote from the lyrics will be used, see [[#Quotes| quotes]] above.
  
 
''Examples:''
 
''Examples:''
*Violinkonzert e-Moll op. 64
+
*Mass
*Sonate pour violoncelle
+
*Requiem
*Sonate pour violoncelle et piano
+
*No. 4. Recitativo accompagnato ed Aria
  
====Ensembles====
+
===Standard untitled works formats===
 +
*Form(s)
 +
*Part number. Form
 +
*Form [[#Keys in untitled works| key]]
 +
*Form [[#Instrumentation| instrumentation]]
 +
*Form instrumentation key
 +
*Form instrumentation number key
  
==Tempo / character==
+
All the above combinations can also have one [[#Catalogue numbers| catalogue number]].  
Musicbrainz has currently no field for storing the tempo of a work. The annotation can be used for this purpose.
 
  
===Tempo / character for untitled works===
+
*[[#Tempo / character | tempo / character]]
It is common for untitled works to have only tempo or character as title; ex. Allegro, Slow. This is most common for sub-parts of pre-20th century concertos, sonatas and symphonies.<br />
+
*Character, catalogue
 +
*Part number. Character
  
Only use the first tempo in the title field, do not list tempo changes inside the work. A second tempo can be used if a work is divided into different sections by the composer, e.g. Menuet - Trio. Or for instance in Beethoven's piano sonatas, when there is a short introduction in a slower tempo than the main part of the movement. These type of works are usually referred to with both tempi outside MusicBrainz too.  
+
''Other combinations are possible but unusual.''<br/ >
  
{{note}} The final part of multi-part works is often listed with both "Finale" and tempo, e.g. "Finale: Allegro". This formatting should not be used anywhere else; tempo information is separate from titles and does not belong in the title field.<br />
+
What to append to the basic form (if anything) depends entirely on the context. Try to follow convention, the title field should not be used to put in general information (like keys and instrumentation) if it is not '''how you usually would refer to this work'''.<br/ >
{{note}} You should not translate a tempo marking (possibly transliterate). If you believe it is helpful, you can enter a translated tempo as a search hint (secondary alias).<br />
 
  
====Untitled works without tempo marking====
+
E.g. a prelude by J.S. Bach is often referred to by key (ex. "Prelude in d-minor"), while a prelude from an instrumental suite is simply the "prelude from the G-major suite". You would never add anything to the form in the latter case (in a suite, multiple works in the same form usually have numbers after the form, e.g. Menuet I, Menuet II).
If a part work is without tempo marking, you should use [untitled] in the title field.
 
  
==Key / Modus==
+
===Form===
There is no field for keys in MusicBrainz currently. Keys should not be added to work titles, but can be stored in annotations.
+
''Examples:''<br />
 +
*[[Work:48ef3f49-8438-368b-9b09-0b1ab281ac15|Ouverture]] ''from Ouverture g-Moll by J.S Bach''
  
===Keys in untitled works===
 
For certain generic-titled works, the key is used as an identifier and should be added to the title. ''This is a workaround until there is a specific field for keys, in which case keys will be removed from all titles.''<br />
 
  
Try to follow convention; ex. you can have a standalone "Minuet in g", but you would never list keys for minuets inside a symphony.<br />
+
====Untitled stage music====
Untitled symphonies, sonatas, masses and concertos very often have the key as identifier for the main work.<br />
+
Most stage music works have titles, but there are some common untitled works: overtures, acts, parts and (in ballets) scenes (can also be titled).<br/ >
 +
Establishing the original language is the only formatting that can be done with these works. Normally, no other information should be added. E.g. overtures are identified as "the overture from opera X" and so on.
  
 
''Examples:''<br />
 
''Examples:''<br />
*[[Work:59d5880c-c450-4c39-bfbd-5a770f8a24b2|Ouverture g-Moll, BWV 822]]
+
*[[Work:68b83a92-1a10-3289-aa97-04bc174ef3a1|Overture]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
===Instrumentation for untitled works===
 +
Certain untitled works need basic information about instrumentation, mostly concertos and sonatas. How the instrumentation should be formatted depends on the conventions for the language in question, see the CSG-language pages. E.g. a literal translation of "Quartet for Strings" will not work for every language, perhaps the form "String quartet" is more appropriate. It could also differ between different forms & ensemble constellations for the same language.<br />
  
==Catalogue numbers==
+
The title field should use the original instrumentation, e.g. "pianoforte". Aliases can have "modern" instruments.<br />
Ideally catalogue should be put in specific fields, but since catalogue numbers are an important part of identifying a work, as a workaround one catalogue number can be appended to the title. If more than one catalogue is used for a work, try to find the most commonly used catalogue.<br />
 
  
 
''Examples:''
 
''Examples:''
*[[Work:41cc50ef-631e-42e5-ae4c-7bdf5e16cff4|Москва, Черемушки, Op. 105]]
+
*Violinkonzert e-Moll op. 64 ''by Felix Mendelssohn''
 +
*Sonate pour violoncelle
 +
*Sonate pour violoncelle et piano
 +
*Koncert for klaver og orkester, Op. 16 ''by Edvard Grieg''
 +
 
 +
====Ensembles====
 +
*Adagio for Strings ''by S. Barber''
  
===Catalogue of parts===
+
===Form/instrumentation order number===
Usually only main works have a catalogue, but note that collections of standalone works (which looks like a main work with parts in MusicBrainz), is treated like standalone works in this regard.<br />
+
If a composer has written multiple works of the same form and instrumentation, they often get numbered chronologically. The order number goes after the instrumentation. Formatting is language-dependent.<br />
  
''Examples:''
+
''Examples:''<br />
*Mazurka, op. 17 no. 4
+
*[[Work:aacb1ab0-c740-436a-a782-ed60026cf82b|Symfonie č. 9 e moll]]
  
==Part numbers==
 
Only part numbers given by the composer may be used in the title field. Do not add your own numbering of parts.<br />
 
  
''Examples:''
+
===Keys in untitled works===
*Gloria (Mozart: Krönungsmesse)
+
For certain generic-titled works, the key is used as an identifier and should be added to the title. ''This is a workaround until there is a specific field for keys, in which case keys will be removed from all titles.''<br />
*But who may abide (Händel: The Messiah)
 
*No. 3. Denn die Herrlichkeit Gottes des Herrn (Händel: The Messiah, "Mozart" arrangement, KV 572)
 
*? No. 4. Recitativo accompagnato ed Aria
 
**So spricht der Herr
 
**Doch wer mag ertragen den Tag seiner Ankunft
 
  
===Part ordering===
+
Try to follow convention; ex. you can have a standalone "Minuet in g", but you would never list keys for minuets inside a symphony.<br />
Unfortunately there is currently no ordering system available in MusicBrainz. Until a solution is in place, the disambiguation field can be used if necessary; e.g. "Allegro (1st mvt)" vs. "Allegro (3rd mvt).''
+
Untitled symphonies, sonatas, masses and concertos very often have the key as identifier for the main work. In general, only main works have keys.<br />
  
==Vocal music==
+
Keys in untitled works should be standardized into "modern" formatting including tonality (major/minor) where applicable. See the respective CSG-language pages for details.
===Untitled vocal work===
 
Only main works of vocal music can be "untitled". If work with lyrics has no distinct title, a quote from the lyrics will be used, see below.
 
  
''Examples:''
+
''Examples:''<br />
*Mass
+
*[[Work:59d5880c-c450-4c39-bfbd-5a770f8a24b2|Ouverture g-Moll]] ''by J.S Bach''
*Requiem
 
  
===Quotes===
+
===Tempo / character for untitled works===
Especially in older vocal music, the title can be made up of (a part of) the first line in the lyrics. Do not use quotation marks, and try to find a good source for the length of the quote if not available in the score.<br />
+
It is common for untitled works to have only tempo or character as title; ex. Allegro, Slow. This is most common for sub-parts of pre-20th century concertos, sonatas and symphonies.<br />  
  
''Examples:''
+
Only use the first tempo in the title field, do not list tempo changes inside the work. A second tempo can be used if a work is divided into two major different sections by the composer, e.g. Menuet - Trio. Or when there is a short introduction in another (slower) tempo than the main part of the work. These type of works are usually referred to with both tempi outside MusicBrainz too.  
*[[Work:e6c6d039-d3c0-31b5-b3c2-f58a68dfcada|No. 21. Il mio tesoro intanto]]
 
  
====Quotes and multiple sections====
+
Some parts of a multi-part work can have a form/type (e.g. Finale, Scherzo), while other parts are untitled, and has the character/tempo as title (e.g. Allegro). In that case, choose form/type instead of character. Do not mix form with character in the title field. The character can be entered as a search hint alias.<br />
  
===Dramatic roles===
 
Roles (e.g. Evangelista, Carmen)
 
  
==Excerpt works==
+
''Examples:''<br />
(See http://musicbrainz.org/doc/Style/Classical/Works for an explanation)<br />
+
*Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso ''by Beethoven (from the 9th symphony)''
Try to find the most commonly used title, in the same language as the lyrics. A quote from the lyrics is usually better than a descriptive title, e.g. use "Treulich geführt" rather than "Brautchor aus Lohengrin".<br />
+
*I. Allegro molto ed appassionato ''by E. Grieg (from Violin Sonata no. 3)''
 +
*I. Largo e maestoso - Allegro non troppo ''from "Scheherazade" by Rimsky-Korsakov''
 +
  
{{note}} For primary aliases a descriptive title (e.g. "Bridal Chorus from Lohengrin" in English) may be preferred.
+
{{note}} You should not translate a tempo marking (possibly transliterate). If you believe it is helpful, you can enter a translated tempo as a search hint (secondary alias).<br />
 +
{{note}} Expand shorthand notation, e.g. "Allo." to "Allegro".
  
 +
====Untitled works without tempo marking====
 +
If a part work is without tempo marking, use [untitled] in the title field.
  
 
==Old practices==
 
==Old practices==
* You should not manually concatenate main work and part work titles like the old track titles in MusicBrainz before NGS. Note that you must always link the sub-part to the main work, otherwise it would be impossible to know where a work with a generic title (ex. "Allegro") belongs.
+
*You should not manually concatenate main work and part work titles like the old track titles in MusicBrainz before NGS. Note that you must always link the sub-part to the main work, otherwise it would be impossible to know where a work with a generic title (ex. "Allegro") belongs.
* Do not add ordering numbers to part works (common in the old track titles). See [#Multi-part works| Multi-part works] above.
+
*Do not add ordering numbers to part works (common in the old track titles). See [#Part numbers| Part numbers] above.
 +
*Part numbers should be in the format the composer used (previously part numbers had to be Roman Numerals)
 +
*Let nicknames get separate aliases, do not add a nickname to another title.

Latest revision as of 08:49, 22 October 2013


Status: This page describes an active style guideline proposal and is not official.



Proposal number: RFC-CSG Works part II: Titles
Champion: symphonick
Current status: on hold



JIRA ticket STYLE-232

Summary

  1. Try to establish the original title in the original language and use this in the title field.
  2. All other titles should be in aliases.
  3. One catalogue number can be added to the title field, but no other information, except for 4)
  4. See untitled works when there is no explicit title or any lyrics to quote.

Title

The work title field should only contain the title given by the composer, in the language the work was originally written. This is not necessarily the composer's preferred language, also consider if the work was written with a specific performance or audience (country) in mind. See the respective CSG-language pages for how to format language-specific details.
One catalogue number can be added to this title (as a workaround until catalogues can have specific fields).
Untitled works, where the composer has only titled the work with a form or a character/tempo (concerto, symphony, allegro etc) have special guidelines, see separate section below.

It is recommended to use printed scores as sources for titles. For example IMSLP have downloadable scans of old music, often early editions and autographs (common places for an original title to be found).
If that is not available, just use the best source you can find. Titles can be corrected later.

Titled works variants

Examples:

Score overview

In the score the title is usually found at the top of the first page of the score, in a large typeface (see below). But in some cases, the full title is only printed on the front page, and the title printed in the actual score is a shorter version.

works score1 beta.png

Note that this is just one example of how a score could look like.

Catalogue numbers

Ideally catalogue should be put in specific fields, but since catalogue numbers are an important part of identifying a work, as a workaround one catalogue number can be appended to the title. If more than one catalogue is used for a work, try to find the most commonly used catalogue.
Exact formatting depends on the specific catalogue, e.g. certain catalogues have a dot before the number etc.

Examples:

  • Winterreise, D 911 by F. Schubert
  • Falstaff, op. 68 by E. Elgar
  • Missa in Angustiis, Hob. XXII:11 by J. Haydn
  • Die Zauberflöte, K. 620 by W.A. Mozart

Part works catalogue

Usually only main works have a catalogue, but note that collections of standalone works (which looks like a main work with parts in MusicBrainz), is treated like standalone works in this regard.

Examples:

  • Mazurka, op. 17 no. 4

Part numbers

Only part numbers given by the composer may be used in the title field. Do not add your own numbering of parts.

Examples:

  • Gloria (Mozart: Krönungsmesse)
  • But who may abide (Händel: The Messiah)
  • No. 3. Denn die Herrlichkeit Gottes des Herrn (Händel: The Messiah, "Mozart" arrangement, KV 572)
  • ? No. 4. Recitativo accompagnato ed Aria
    • So spricht der Herr
    • Doch wer mag ertragen den Tag seiner Ankunft

Part ordering

Unfortunately there is currently no ordering system available in MusicBrainz. Until a solution is in place, the disambiguation field can be used if necessary; e.g. "Allegro (1st mvt)" vs. "Allegro (3rd mvt).

Other titles

Titles not by the composer should be in separate aliases. This includes:

  • "Modern" titles, when the original title by the composer is rarely used
  • Nicknames, such as "Moonlight Sonata" (more common with untitled works)
  • Translated titles, such as "The Firebird" and "Christmas Oratorio". Only use existing translations, do not enter your own.
  • Works that have both a title by the composer and a generic version of the title (that can contain ordering numbers not in the original title)

As there can be only one primary alias per language; try to find the standard title for your specific language. More titles can be entered as secondary aliases.
Using the disambiguation field can be problematic since these titles are often local, while the disambiguation field is global. E.g. a French nickname is usually translated, if it exists at all in English.

Examples:

  • Méditation sur le Premier Prélude de Piano de S. Bach. by Bach/Gounod alias (all languages): Ave Maria
  • Passio Domini Nostri J.C. Secundum Evangelistam Matthaeum by J.S. Bach German alias: Matthäus-Passion
  • Москва, Черемушки, Op. 105 by D. Schostakovich, English alias: Moscow, Cheryomushki, Op. 105
  • Sonata quasi una fantasia, Op. 27 No. 1 by Beethoven English alias: Piano Sonata No. 13 in Eb-flat major, Op. 27 No. 1
  • Sonata quasi una fantasia, Op. 27 No. 2 by Beethoven English search hint alias: Moonlight Sonata
  • Konzert in C, K. 467 by W.A. Mozart English search hint alias: Elvira Madigan
  • Всенощное бдение, op. 37 by S. Rachmaninoff English search hint alias: Vespers

It is expected that eventually, both a title (alias) in the user's preferred language AND the default work title can be shown in the UI.

Other information from the score

The information from the categories below should not be added to the title field for titled works (use the annotation if necessary), but can be useful when dealing with untitled works.

Instrumentation

Ex. "for flute and piano", "for strings" etc.

Tempo / character

Ex. allegro, moderato, slow.

Key / Modus

Ex. "G-Dur", "en Si bemol", "A-flat major" etc. See the CSG-language pages for details.

"Subtitle"

The subtitle line(s) in the score and on the title page can contain a variety of information related to the music. Usually you will find a description of the instrumentation, but pretty much anything can be added here by the composer or by the editor.

Examples of what can be printed as subtitle:

  • Foxtrot for orchestra (from Nixon in China)
  • Торжественная увертюра (1812)
  • in G minor, S. 1001 (J.S. Bach: Violin Sonata)
  • Komponiert 1851 (Schumann: Violin sonata)
  • Épisode de la vie d'un Artiste ... en cinq parties (Berlioz: Symphony Fantastique)
  • mit Schluss-Chor über Schillers Ode: "An die Freude" für grosses Orchester, 4 Solo- und 4 Chor-Stimmen, componirt und seiner Majestaet dem König von Preussen Friedrich Wilhelm III. in liebster Ehrfurcht zugeeignet von Ludwig van Beethoven"

For untitled works, subtitles can occasionally be used as printed or with only a slight modification (ex. "Sonate für Arpeggione und Pianoforte"). Other times, it can be taken as an indication of what perhaps should be included in the title (e.g. key and catalogue for the Bach example above) and in what language the original title should be.

Dedication

Ex. "Dem Grafen Ferdinand von Waldstein gewidmet". Sometimes found above the title, sometimes below, or just on the front page.

Vocal music

Quotes

For a lot of (especially older) vocal music (and instrumental music based on vocal music, e.g. chorale preludes), there is no explicit title. Instead the title is (a part of) the first line in the lyrics.
Try to find the most common length of the quote, if it is not available in the score.

Note Note: Do not put quotation marks around quotes.

Titles made from quotes is treated like any other titled work in MusicBrainz; nothing else is allowed in the title field except part numbers and one catalogue number.

Examples:

Quotes and multiple sections

Translations

Works with translated lyrics (as opposed to works with only a translated title) should have the specific translation as default language.

Dramatic roles

Roles (e.g. Evangelista, Carmen)

Excerpt works

(See http://musicbrainz.org/doc/Style/Classical/Works for an explanation)
Try to find the most commonly used title, in the same language as the lyrics. A quote from the lyrics is usually better than a descriptive title, e.g. use "Treulich geführt" rather than "Brautchor aus Lohengrin".

Note Note: For primary aliases a descriptive title (e.g. "Bridal Chorus from Lohengrin" in English) may be preferred.

Untitled works

Instrumental music and some vocal music from before the 20th century often has no actual title. Instead these works are referred to using their form and/or instrumentation (ex. sonata, quartet, mass, symphony, cello concerto), sometimes with key. Untitled works should be listed in the language in which the work was originally titled by the composer.

Note Note: This is only for untitled works, otherwise the type of work (e.g. aria, sonata, trio) is stored in the work type field, not in the title.

Generic titles by the composer

If a composer has titled a work using (among other words) the form, this work is not untitled, even if the work also can be described using form/instrumentation/key.
An "untitled" version of the title can be added as an alias.

Examples:

  • Ouvertüre nach Französischer Art, BWV 831 by J.S. Bach
  • Sonata quasi una fantasia, Op. 27 No. 2 by Beethoven
  • 10 Märsche, um den Sieg zu verfehlen by Mauricio Kagel

Untitled vocal works

Only main works of vocal music can be "untitled". When a vocal work has no distinct title, a quote from the lyrics will be used, see quotes above.

Examples:

  • Mass
  • Requiem
  • No. 4. Recitativo accompagnato ed Aria

Standard untitled works formats

  • Form(s)
  • Part number. Form
  • Form key
  • Form instrumentation
  • Form instrumentation key
  • Form instrumentation number key

All the above combinations can also have one catalogue number.

Other combinations are possible but unusual.

What to append to the basic form (if anything) depends entirely on the context. Try to follow convention, the title field should not be used to put in general information (like keys and instrumentation) if it is not how you usually would refer to this work.

E.g. a prelude by J.S. Bach is often referred to by key (ex. "Prelude in d-minor"), while a prelude from an instrumental suite is simply the "prelude from the G-major suite". You would never add anything to the form in the latter case (in a suite, multiple works in the same form usually have numbers after the form, e.g. Menuet I, Menuet II).

Form

Examples:


Untitled stage music

Most stage music works have titles, but there are some common untitled works: overtures, acts, parts and (in ballets) scenes (can also be titled).
Establishing the original language is the only formatting that can be done with these works. Normally, no other information should be added. E.g. overtures are identified as "the overture from opera X" and so on.

Examples:


Instrumentation for untitled works

Certain untitled works need basic information about instrumentation, mostly concertos and sonatas. How the instrumentation should be formatted depends on the conventions for the language in question, see the CSG-language pages. E.g. a literal translation of "Quartet for Strings" will not work for every language, perhaps the form "String quartet" is more appropriate. It could also differ between different forms & ensemble constellations for the same language.

The title field should use the original instrumentation, e.g. "pianoforte". Aliases can have "modern" instruments.

Examples:

  • Violinkonzert e-Moll op. 64 by Felix Mendelssohn
  • Sonate pour violoncelle
  • Sonate pour violoncelle et piano
  • Koncert for klaver og orkester, Op. 16 by Edvard Grieg

Ensembles

  • Adagio for Strings by S. Barber

Form/instrumentation order number

If a composer has written multiple works of the same form and instrumentation, they often get numbered chronologically. The order number goes after the instrumentation. Formatting is language-dependent.

Examples:


Keys in untitled works

For certain generic-titled works, the key is used as an identifier and should be added to the title. This is a workaround until there is a specific field for keys, in which case keys will be removed from all titles.

Try to follow convention; ex. you can have a standalone "Minuet in g", but you would never list keys for minuets inside a symphony.
Untitled symphonies, sonatas, masses and concertos very often have the key as identifier for the main work. In general, only main works have keys.

Keys in untitled works should be standardized into "modern" formatting including tonality (major/minor) where applicable. See the respective CSG-language pages for details.

Examples:

Tempo / character for untitled works

It is common for untitled works to have only tempo or character as title; ex. Allegro, Slow. This is most common for sub-parts of pre-20th century concertos, sonatas and symphonies.

Only use the first tempo in the title field, do not list tempo changes inside the work. A second tempo can be used if a work is divided into two major different sections by the composer, e.g. Menuet - Trio. Or when there is a short introduction in another (slower) tempo than the main part of the work. These type of works are usually referred to with both tempi outside MusicBrainz too.

Some parts of a multi-part work can have a form/type (e.g. Finale, Scherzo), while other parts are untitled, and has the character/tempo as title (e.g. Allegro). In that case, choose form/type instead of character. Do not mix form with character in the title field. The character can be entered as a search hint alias.


Examples:

  • Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso by Beethoven (from the 9th symphony)
  • I. Allegro molto ed appassionato by E. Grieg (from Violin Sonata no. 3)
  • I. Largo e maestoso - Allegro non troppo from "Scheherazade" by Rimsky-Korsakov


Note Note: You should not translate a tempo marking (possibly transliterate). If you believe it is helpful, you can enter a translated tempo as a search hint (secondary alias).
Note Note: Expand shorthand notation, e.g. "Allo." to "Allegro".

Untitled works without tempo marking

If a part work is without tempo marking, use [untitled] in the title field.

Old practices

  • You should not manually concatenate main work and part work titles like the old track titles in MusicBrainz before NGS. Note that you must always link the sub-part to the main work, otherwise it would be impossible to know where a work with a generic title (ex. "Allegro") belongs.
  • Do not add ordering numbers to part works (common in the old track titles). See [#Part numbers| Part numbers] above.
  • Part numbers should be in the format the composer used (previously part numbers had to be Roman Numerals)
  • Let nicknames get separate aliases, do not add a nickname to another title.