Difference between revisions of "Work"

From MusicBrainz Wiki
(+ Category:Terminology)
(External databases: I forgot to update this link a while back. I cannot verify whether or not they display ISWCs now since I'm not willing to make an account.)
 
(45 intermediate revisions by 10 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
A '''Work''' refers to a musical composition, that is, the instructions to performers about what sounds and silences to perform on what instruments.
+
In MusicBrainz terminology, a work is a distinct intellectual or artistic creation, which can be expressed in the form of one or more audio recordings. While a work in MusicBrainz is usually musical in nature, it is not necessarily so. For example, a work could be a novel, play, poem or essay, later recorded as an oratory or audiobook.
  
It does not refer to the act of performing or the actual sounds of the music — that is a musical performance. Nor does it refer to the recorded signal fixing the performance in a persistent medium - that is a [[Track|track]].
+
==Distinctiveness==
  
The concept of work is important in [[Classical Music|classical music]], because in many cases there are multiple recordings of the same work. The [[Classical Style Guide|classical style guide]] specifies that [[Release Title|release titles]] and [[Track Title|track titles]] identify the work. 
+
A work’s distinctiveness is based on the artists who contributed to its final output, and whether a work is derived from another original work. Examples of works that are distinct:
  
As of January 2010, the [[MusicBrainz Database]] does not have a specific work entity in the database schema, however, the [[Next Generation Schema|next generation schema]] that is being implemented with the next server release will have work support.
+
* a work that is written by an individual songwriter
 +
* a work that is the result of a collaboration between composer and lyricist
 +
* an instrumental work where an artist later adds lyrics
 +
* translation of an original work into a different language
 +
* a parody of an original work with differing lyrics
 +
* a medley of multiple original works
 +
* a mashup of multiple original works
 +
 
 +
==Types of works==
 +
 
 +
Works are represented predominantly at two levels:
 +
 
 +
'''Discrete works'''<br />
 +
An individual song, musical number or movement. This includes recitatives, arias, choruses, duos, trios, etc. In many cases, discrete works are a part of larger, aggregate works.
 +
 
 +
'''Aggregate works'''<br />
 +
An ordered sequence of one or more songs, numbers or movements, such as: symphony, opera, theatre work, concerto, and concept album. A popular music album is not considered a distinct aggregate work unless it is evident that such an album was written with intent to have a specifically ordered sequence of related songs (i.e. a “concept album”).
 +
 
 +
== Style guidelines ==
 +
Please see the [[Style/Work|guidelines for works]]
 +
 
 +
== Properties ==
 +
 
 +
=== Name ===
 +
The canonical title of the work, expressed in the language it was originally written.
 +
 
 +
=== Type ===
 +
The type of work.
 +
 
 +
=== Aliases ===
 +
If a discrete work is known by name(s) or in language(s) other than its canonical name, these are specified in the work’s [[Aliases|aliases]].
 +
 
 +
=== ISWC ===
 +
The [[ISWC|International Standard Musical Work Code]] assigned to the work by copyright collecting agencies.
 +
 
 +
=== MBID ===
 +
See the [[MusicBrainz Identifier|page about MBIDs]] for more information.
 +
 
 +
=== Disambiguation comment ===
 +
See the [[Disambiguation Comment|page about comments]] for more information.
 +
 
 +
=== Annotation ===
 +
See the [[Annotation|page about annotations]] for more information.
 +
 
 +
==Relationships==
 +
 
 +
A work is associated with artists, recordings and other works through advanced relationships.
 +
 
 +
===Work-to-Artist relationship===
 +
 
 +
A work can be associated with one or more composer, arranger, instrumentator, orchestrator, lyricist, librettist, translator and publisher.
 +
 
 +
===Work-to-Recording relationship===
 +
 
 +
A work can be associated with one or more recordings. This provides the indirect association between a work and its performance and production artists.
 +
 
 +
===Work-to-Work relationships===
 +
 
 +
A work can be associated with one or more other works. There are two types of work-work relationships:
 +
 
 +
''Part-of-work relationship''<br />
 +
A work can be expressed as a part of another work.
 +
 
 +
''Derivative work relationship''<br />
 +
A work can be expressed as being derived from one or more other works. Examples: instrumental work with lyrics added later, translation of a work into a different language, mashup.
 +
 
 +
==Artists==
 +
 
 +
Works do not have an artist of their own, all artists are derived from the work's relationships. A work will show up under the works tab for any artist directly linked to a work (e.g. composers, lyricists). Any works linked to the artist's recordings will also be shown there.
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 +
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_composition Musical composition at Wikipedia].  
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_composition Musical composition at Wikipedia].  
  
[[Category:Development]] [[Category:Terminology]]
+
==External databases==
 +
{|
 +
! Provider !! Main areas covered !! Notes
 +
|-
 +
| [http://iswcnet.cisac.org/ ISWCNet database] provided by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conf%C3%A9d%C3%A9ration_Internationale_des_Soci%C3%A9t%C3%A9s_d%C2%B4Auteurs_et_Compositeurs CISAC]. || Many countries <ref>Argentina, Australia, Barbados, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Ireland, Jamaica, Mexico, Norway, Panama, Peru, St. Lucia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, USA (repertoire represented by BMI), Uruguay and Venezuela</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| [https://repertoire.sacem.fr/ Search engine] provided by [[WikiPedia:Soci%C3%A9t%C3%A9_des_auteurs,_compositeurs_et_%C3%A9diteurs_de_musique|SACEM]] || France
 +
|-
 +
| [https://online.gema.de/werke/search.faces Search engine] provided by [[WikiPedia:Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte|GEMA]] || Germany
 +
|-
 +
| [https://www.siae.it/archivioOpere/OpereMusicali/musicaSearch.do Search engine] provided by [[Wikipedia:Italian Society of Authors and Publishers|SIAE]] || Italy
 +
|-
 +
| [https://enlinea.sgae.es/RepertorioOnline Search engine] provided by [http://www.sgae.es/ SGAE] || Spain
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www2.jasrac.or.jp/eJwid/ Search engine] provided by [http://www.jasrac.or.jp/ JASRAC] || Japan
 +
|-
 +
| [https://www.komca.or.kr/foreign2/eng/S01.jsp Search engine] provided by [http://komca.or.kr/ KOMCA] || South Korea || Does not contain ISWCs
 +
|-
 +
| [https://sso.suisa.ch/wdb/ Search engine] provided by [http://www.suisa.ch/en/ SUISA] || Switzerland
 +
|-
 +
| [http://repertoire.bmi.com/startpage.asp Search engine] provided by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadcast_Music,_Inc. BMI] || USA ||
 +
|-
 +
| [https://www.ascap.com/repertory Search engine] provided by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Society_of_Composers,_Authors_and_Publishers ASCAP] || USA
 +
|-
 +
| [https://www.sesac.com/#/repertory/terms-of-service Search engine] provided by [https://www.sesac.com/ SESAC] || USA ||  Does not contain ISWCs
 +
|-
 +
| [http://203.174.60.196/cashonline/en/workSearch.php Search engine] provided by [http://www.cash.org.hk/ CASH] || Hong Kong || Does not contain ISWCs
 +
|-
 +
| [https://ssl.elicense.co.jp/piece_search/search Search engine] provided by [http://www.elicense.co.jp/ e-License] || Japan || Does not seem to contain ISWCs
 +
|-
 +
| [https://www.must.org.tw/tw/chinese_musical/index.aspx Search engine] provided by [http://www.must.org.tw/ MÜST] || Taiwan || Does not contain ISWCs
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www.sacm.org.mx/informa/repertorio.asp Search engine] provided by [http://sacm.org.mx/ SACM] || Mexico
 +
|-
 +
| [https://www.socan.ca/controller?modulePageName=repertoirePage&subPage=pubRepertoireSearch&searchOption=b&language=en&session=skip Search engine] provided by [https://www.socan.ca/ SOCAN] || Canada || Does not contain ISWCs
 +
|-
 +
| [https://www.apra.com.au/cms/worksearch/worksearch.srvlt Search engine] provided by [https://www.apra.com.au/ APRA] || Australia/New Zealand || Does not contain ISWCs
 +
|-
 +
| [https://www.sazas.org/Glasba/Baza-avtorjev-in-del/Baza-Zdru%C5%BEenja-SAZAS Search engine] provided by [http://www.sazas.org/ SAZAS] || Slovenia || Does not contain ISWCs
 +
|-
 +
| [https://www.sabam.be/pls/apex/f?p=1050:1 Search engine] provided by [http://www.sabam.be SABAM] || Belgium
 +
|-
 +
| [https://online.zaiks.org.pl/WorkCatalog/pages/welcome.jsf Search engine] provided by [http://www.zaiks.org.pl/ ZAIKS] || Poland
 +
|-
 +
| [http://219.92.49.201/ Search engine] provided by [http://www.macp.com.my/ MACP] || Malaysia || Does not contain ISWCs
 +
|-
 +
| [http://rao.ru/information/reestry/reestr-proizvedenij-rossijskih-pravoobladatelej/ Search engine] provided by [http://www.rao.ru/ RAO] || Russia || Does not contain ISWCs
 +
|-
 +
| [https://search.osa.cz/ Search engine] provided by [http://www.osa.cz/ OSA] || Czech Republic
 +
|-
 +
| [https://www.akm-aume.at/akm-webapp/pages/werksuche/sucheDefault.jsf?conversationContext=6 Search engine] provided by [http://www.akm.at/ AKM] || Austria
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www.bumastemra.nl/en/about-buma-stemra/title-catalogue/ Search engine] provided by [http://www.bumastemra.nl/en/ BUMA/STEMRA] || Netherlands
 +
|-
 +
| [https://songselect.ccli.com/ Search engine] provided by [http://www.ccli.com/ CCLI] || Many countries <ref>Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malawi, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Zimbabwe</ref> || Requires an account to access; does not contain ISWCs
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
<references/>
 +
[[Category:Development]] [[Category:Terminology]] [[Category:Work]]

Latest revision as of 22:35, 18 January 2020

In MusicBrainz terminology, a work is a distinct intellectual or artistic creation, which can be expressed in the form of one or more audio recordings. While a work in MusicBrainz is usually musical in nature, it is not necessarily so. For example, a work could be a novel, play, poem or essay, later recorded as an oratory or audiobook.

Distinctiveness

A work’s distinctiveness is based on the artists who contributed to its final output, and whether a work is derived from another original work. Examples of works that are distinct:

  • a work that is written by an individual songwriter
  • a work that is the result of a collaboration between composer and lyricist
  • an instrumental work where an artist later adds lyrics
  • translation of an original work into a different language
  • a parody of an original work with differing lyrics
  • a medley of multiple original works
  • a mashup of multiple original works

Types of works

Works are represented predominantly at two levels:

Discrete works
An individual song, musical number or movement. This includes recitatives, arias, choruses, duos, trios, etc. In many cases, discrete works are a part of larger, aggregate works.

Aggregate works
An ordered sequence of one or more songs, numbers or movements, such as: symphony, opera, theatre work, concerto, and concept album. A popular music album is not considered a distinct aggregate work unless it is evident that such an album was written with intent to have a specifically ordered sequence of related songs (i.e. a “concept album”).

Style guidelines

Please see the guidelines for works

Properties

Name

The canonical title of the work, expressed in the language it was originally written.

Type

The type of work.

Aliases

If a discrete work is known by name(s) or in language(s) other than its canonical name, these are specified in the work’s aliases.

ISWC

The International Standard Musical Work Code assigned to the work by copyright collecting agencies.

MBID

See the page about MBIDs for more information.

Disambiguation comment

See the page about comments for more information.

Annotation

See the page about annotations for more information.

Relationships

A work is associated with artists, recordings and other works through advanced relationships.

Work-to-Artist relationship

A work can be associated with one or more composer, arranger, instrumentator, orchestrator, lyricist, librettist, translator and publisher.

Work-to-Recording relationship

A work can be associated with one or more recordings. This provides the indirect association between a work and its performance and production artists.

Work-to-Work relationships

A work can be associated with one or more other works. There are two types of work-work relationships:

Part-of-work relationship
A work can be expressed as a part of another work.

Derivative work relationship
A work can be expressed as being derived from one or more other works. Examples: instrumental work with lyrics added later, translation of a work into a different language, mashup.

Artists

Works do not have an artist of their own, all artists are derived from the work's relationships. A work will show up under the works tab for any artist directly linked to a work (e.g. composers, lyricists). Any works linked to the artist's recordings will also be shown there.

See also

External databases

Provider Main areas covered Notes
ISWCNet database provided by CISAC. Many countries [1]
Search engine provided by SACEM France
Search engine provided by GEMA Germany
Search engine provided by SIAE Italy
Search engine provided by SGAE Spain
Search engine provided by JASRAC Japan
Search engine provided by KOMCA South Korea Does not contain ISWCs
Search engine provided by SUISA Switzerland
Search engine provided by BMI USA
Search engine provided by ASCAP USA
Search engine provided by SESAC USA Does not contain ISWCs
Search engine provided by CASH Hong Kong Does not contain ISWCs
Search engine provided by e-License Japan Does not seem to contain ISWCs
Search engine provided by MÜST Taiwan Does not contain ISWCs
Search engine provided by SACM Mexico
Search engine provided by SOCAN Canada Does not contain ISWCs
Search engine provided by APRA Australia/New Zealand Does not contain ISWCs
Search engine provided by SAZAS Slovenia Does not contain ISWCs
Search engine provided by SABAM Belgium
Search engine provided by ZAIKS Poland
Search engine provided by MACP Malaysia Does not contain ISWCs
Search engine provided by RAO Russia Does not contain ISWCs
Search engine provided by OSA Czech Republic
Search engine provided by AKM Austria
Search engine provided by BUMA/STEMRA Netherlands
Search engine provided by CCLI Many countries [2] Requires an account to access; does not contain ISWCs
  1. Argentina, Australia, Barbados, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Ireland, Jamaica, Mexico, Norway, Panama, Peru, St. Lucia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, USA (repertoire represented by BMI), Uruguay and Venezuela
  2. Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malawi, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Zimbabwe