Difference between revisions of "Work"

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(+ Category:Terminology)
(NGS upgrade based on extensive work by development and style council.)
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A '''Work''' refers to a musical composition, that is, the instructions to performers about what sounds and silences to perform on what instruments. 
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=Work=
  
It does not refer to the act of performing or the actual sounds of the music — that is a musical performance. Nor does it refer to the recorded signal fixing the performance in a persistent medium - that is a [[Track|track]].  
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In MusicBrainz terminology, a work is a distinct intellectual or artistic creation, which can be expressed in the form of one or more audio recordings. While a work in MusicBrainz is usually musical in nature, it is not necessarily so. For example, a work could be a novel, play, poem or essay, later recorded as an oratory or audiobook.
  
The concept of work is important in [[Classical Music|classical music]], because in many cases there are multiple recordings of the same work. The [[Classical Style Guide|classical style guide]] specifies that [[Release Title|release titles]] and [[Track Title|track titles]] identify the work. 
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==Distinctiveness==
  
As of January 2010, the [[MusicBrainz Database]] does not have a specific work entity in the database schema, however, the [[Next Generation Schema|next generation schema]] that is being implemented with the next server release will have work support.
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A work’s distinctiveness is based on the artists who contributed to its final output, and whether a work is derived from another original work. Examples of works that are distinct:
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* a work that is written by an individual songwriter
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* a song that is the result of a collaboration between composer and lyricist
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* an instrumental work where an artist later adds lyrics
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* translation of an original work into a different language
 +
* a parody of an original work with differing lyrics
 +
* a medley of multiple original works
 +
* a remix of an original work
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* a mashup of multiple original works
 +
 
 +
==Types of works==
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Works are represented predominantly at two levels:
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'''Discrete works'''<br />
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An individual song, musical number or movement. This includes recitatives, arias, choruses, duos, trios, etc. In many cases, discrete works are a part of larger, aggregate works.
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'''Aggregate works'''<br />
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An ordered sequence of one or more songs, numbers or movements, such as: symphony, opera, theatre work, concerto, and concept album. A popular music album is not considered a distinct aggregate work unless it is evident that such an album was written with intent to have a specifically ordered sequence of related songs (i.e. a “concept album”).
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==Attributes==
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A work has the following attributes:
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'''Name'''<br />
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The canonical title of the work, expressed in the language it was originally written.
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'''Comment'''<br />
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A comment that can disambiguate the work from others with the same name by the same artist(s).
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'''[[ISWC]]'''<br />
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The international Standard Musical Work Code assigned to the work by copyright collecting agencies.
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'''Type'''<br />
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The type of work.
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==Aliases==
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 +
If a discrete work is known by name(s) or in language(s) other than its canonical name, these are specified in the work’s aliases.
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 +
==Relationships==
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A work is associated with artists, recordings and other works through advanced relationships.
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===Work-to-Artist relationship===
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A work can be associated with one or more composer, arranger, instrumentator, orchestrator, lyricist, librettist, translator and publisher.
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 +
===Work-to-Recording relationship===
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A work can be associated with one or more recordings. This provides the indirect association between a work and its performance and production artists.
 +
 
 +
===Work-to-Work relationships===
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A work can be associated with one or more other works. There are two types of work-work relationships:
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 +
''Part-of-work relationship''<br />
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A work can be expressed as a part of another work.
 +
 
 +
''Derivative work relationship''<br />
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A work can be expressed as being derived from one or more other works. Examples: instrumental work with lyrics added later, translation of a work into a different language, remix, mashup.
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
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* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_composition Musical composition at Wikipedia].  
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_composition Musical composition at Wikipedia].  
  
 
[[Category:Development]] [[Category:Terminology]]
 
[[Category:Development]] [[Category:Terminology]]

Revision as of 20:21, 21 March 2011

Work

In MusicBrainz terminology, a work is a distinct intellectual or artistic creation, which can be expressed in the form of one or more audio recordings. While a work in MusicBrainz is usually musical in nature, it is not necessarily so. For example, a work could be a novel, play, poem or essay, later recorded as an oratory or audiobook.

Distinctiveness

A work’s distinctiveness is based on the artists who contributed to its final output, and whether a work is derived from another original work. Examples of works that are distinct:

  • a work that is written by an individual songwriter
  • a song that is the result of a collaboration between composer and lyricist
  • an instrumental work where an artist later adds lyrics
  • translation of an original work into a different language
  • a parody of an original work with differing lyrics
  • a medley of multiple original works
  • a remix of an original work
  • a mashup of multiple original works

Types of works

Works are represented predominantly at two levels:

Discrete works
An individual song, musical number or movement. This includes recitatives, arias, choruses, duos, trios, etc. In many cases, discrete works are a part of larger, aggregate works.

Aggregate works
An ordered sequence of one or more songs, numbers or movements, such as: symphony, opera, theatre work, concerto, and concept album. A popular music album is not considered a distinct aggregate work unless it is evident that such an album was written with intent to have a specifically ordered sequence of related songs (i.e. a “concept album”).

Attributes

A work has the following attributes:

Name
The canonical title of the work, expressed in the language it was originally written.

Comment
A comment that can disambiguate the work from others with the same name by the same artist(s).

ISWC
The international Standard Musical Work Code assigned to the work by copyright collecting agencies.

Type
The type of work.

Aliases

If a discrete work is known by name(s) or in language(s) other than its canonical name, these are specified in the work’s aliases.

Relationships

A work is associated with artists, recordings and other works through advanced relationships.

Work-to-Artist relationship

A work can be associated with one or more composer, arranger, instrumentator, orchestrator, lyricist, librettist, translator and publisher.

Work-to-Recording relationship

A work can be associated with one or more recordings. This provides the indirect association between a work and its performance and production artists.

Work-to-Work relationships

A work can be associated with one or more other works. There are two types of work-work relationships:

Part-of-work relationship
A work can be expressed as a part of another work.

Derivative work relationship
A work can be expressed as being derived from one or more other works. Examples: instrumental work with lyrics added later, translation of a work into a different language, remix, mashup.

See also