History:CSGv2/Work/Title/Movement identification Proposal

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Status: This page describes an active style guideline proposal and is not official.



Proposal number: RFC-82
Champion: BrianFreud
Current status: Awaiting NGS implementation for final revision and passage.

RFC

Trac ticket # 4426

The Classical Style Guidelines:

CSG for Works: Title

The Movement Framework


Classical Work

{{hanging cell

color1 = 9A9 cell1 = Movement

}}{{hanging cell

color1 = 30C color2 = C06 color3 = F93 color4 = FF0 color5 = 290 color6 = C0C color7 = 0C0 color8 = F99 color9 = 09C cell1 = Position cell2 = Container cell3 = Dramatic Position cell4 = Form cell5 = Tempo cell6 = Vocalization cell7 = Title cell8 = Libretto cell9 = Role

}}

Official Documentation > Style Guidelines > The Classical Style Guidelines
Artist
Title: Work and Opus | Movement | Ornamentation | Special Cases


Whereas the Work and Opus Framework identifies a work, the Movement Framework identifies the particular movement within a work. This applies even if the work consists only of a single movement.



Basic Framework

Unlike the Work and Opus framework, most movements will not require all aspects of the Movement framework. However, the framework is designed such that any aspects required by a given movement are organized in a standard and unified format.

Position

Movement
Position Container Dramatic Position Form Tempo Vocalization Title Libretto Role

This defines the movement number of a multi-movement work.

Framework
  • For single-movement works, this movement element is left unused.
  • The movement number is always indicated using uppercase Roman numerals, with lowercase Latin letters used to indicate sub-movement numbers.
  • New work entries should be created for sub-movement parts which are indicated within the movement. New work entries should not be created when a section of a movement is separated only because of the demands of fitting a work onto a physical recording medium.
Examples
  • Sonata for Violin (or Flute) & Piano No. 5 in B-flat major, K. 10: I. Allegro
  • Sonata for Violin (or Flute) & Piano No. 5 in B-flat major, K. 10: II. Andante
  • Sonata for Violin (or Flute) & Piano No. 5 in B-flat major, K. 10: III. Minuetto
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 “Dominicusmesse”: IIIa. “Te Deum laudamus”
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 “Dominicusmesse”: IIIb. “Te ergo quaesumus”
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 “Dominicusmesse”: IIIc. “Aeterna fac”
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 “Dominicusmesse”: IIId. “In te Domino speravi”



Container

Movement
Position Container Dramatic Position Form Tempo Vocalization Title Libretto Role

This stores the title of the work-within-a-work that identifies the overall movement to which sub-movements belong. This used most frequently within ecclesiastical works.

Framework
  • Provide the title of the container, followed by a full colon (:).
  • The container title should never be translated from the original (e.g. always "Benedictus", never "Song of Thanksgiving", regardless of what language CSG is used).
Examples
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 “Dominicusmesse”: Ia. Kyrie: Adagio. “Kyrie eleison”
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 “Dominicusmesse”: Ib. Kyrie: Allegro. “Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison”
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 “Dominicusmesse”: IIa. Gloria: Allegro moderato. “Gloria in excelsis Deo”
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 “Dominicusmesse”: IIb. Gloria: Andante grazioso. “Laudamus te”
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 “Dominicusmesse”: IIIa. Credo: Allegro molto. “Patrem omnipotentem”
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 “Dominicusmesse”: IIIb. Credo: Allegro. “Et incarnatus est”
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 “Dominicusmesse”: IIIc. Credo: Adagio. “Crucifixus”



Dramatic Position

Movement
Position Container Dramatic Position Form Tempo Vocalization Title Libretto Role

This stores the act, scene, and/or song number within the overall work. This normally is used for operas, though other rarer forms may also have need for these fields.

Elements
This section may contain up to four elements:
  • Appendix indication
  • Act
  • Scene
  • Song number
Appendix works should retain that indication, with "Appendix. " preceeding "Act".
  • "Appendix" should be translated as appropriate for the catalogue, not the language of the CSG work title (e.g. "Anhang").
These elements should always be ordered and indicated:
[ Appendix ]. [ Act # ], [ Scene # ]. [ No. # ]
In situations where there is an Act, but there is not a Scene, the period ought to be used, omitting the comma:
[ Appendix ]. [ Act # ]. [ No. # ]
In situations where this section is the final section of a movement title, and that title would otherwise end in a trailing period, omit the trailing period.
Language
"Act" and "Scene" should be translated consistent with the language being used for the CSG work title.
Ordering
The act, scene, and song number should be those as assigned within the original work.
New work entries should not be created simply to accommodate a release which renumbers the acts, scenes, and/or songs, nor to accommodate a release which changes the ordering of movements of a work.
Numbering
Acts and Scenes
Numbered acts and scenes should be indicated using Roman numerals.[1]
  • Unnumbered acts or scenes, such as "Scene Ultima", should retain their title, and not be changed to instead bear a number.
  • When multiple acts or scenes are spanned within the same (sub)movement, they ought to be indicated using an en-dash (–).
Numbered songs
These should always be indicated using Arabic numerals.
Numbered songs should have the number preceeded by the appropriate aBreviation for "number". Reference ABreviating 'number' for information on how the word "number" should be indicated.[2]
Examples
  • Ascanio in Alba, K. 111: Act I, Scene IV
  • Così fan tutte ossia La scuola degli amanti, K. *584: Appendix. Act. I, Scene XI. No. 15
  • Die Entführung aus dem Serail, K. 384: Appendix
  • Il sogno di Scipione, K. 126: Act I. No. 1
  • L'oca del Cairo, K. 422: Scene III. No. 1
  • La finta semplice, K. 46a / KV 51: Act I, Scene I. No. 1
  • Lucio Silla, K. 135: Act III, Scene Ultima



Form

Movement
Position Container Dramatic Position Form Tempo Vocalization Title Libretto Role

(Description)

(Section)
(Section)
(Section)
Examples



Tempo

Movement
Position Container Dramatic Position Form Tempo Vocalization Title Libretto Role

(Description)

(Section)
(Section)
(Section)
Examples



Vocalization

Movement
Position Container Dramatic Position Form Tempo Vocalization Title Libretto Role

This identifies which voice parts sing within a vocal movement.

Framework
  1. Each voice part should be proper-cased.
  2. Where more than one of a voice part is indicated, Arabic numerals should be used.
  3. Voice parts should be ordered starting with the highest pitch and moving to the lowest. A reference ordering is available on the reference page.
  4. The listing of voice parts should be surrounded by parentheses, separated from the remainder of the movement title by a single space.
Examples
  • Notturno for 3 Voices and 3 Basset Horns in F major, K. 436: Andante. (2 Sopranos, Bass)
  • Kyrie for 4 Voices & Organ (in Figured Bass) in D minor, K. 90: (no tempo indication). (Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass)



Title

Movement
Position Container Dramatic Position Form Tempo Vocalization Title Libretto Role

This is the title of a movement. This may be either a common title, or a title specifically assigned by the composer.

If a movement has a title, then the Libretto section of the movement framework should be omitted.

To clarify on the movement common title:

  • This is not the work's title. Even in a single-movement song, the title of that song is the work title, not the movement title. The correct position for the work title is described in the work and opus Framework.
  • This is not the title of only a single form within a movement with multiple forms. The correct position for such a title is described in the Form section of the movement framework.
  • This is not the title of only a single tempo within a movement with multiple tempos. The correct position for such a title is described in the Tempo section of the movement framework.
  • Be sure not to confuse the Container title with the movement title. The same text is occasionally both titles.
Framework

The title should be surrounded by double quotes of a type appropriate to the language of the title, not the language being used for the CSG title. This should then be offset from the rest of the movement title by a single space.

  • For Latin text, use U+201C and U+201D (“ and ”). For other languages, Wikipedia may be of assistance in determining the correct quotation marks to use.
Examples

Movement with title:

  • Requiem in D minor, K. 626 (Süßmayr completion): II. Kyrie: “Kyrie eleison”

Movement with both a title and libretto. Libretto is omitted as the movement has a title:

  • Our Hunting Fathers, Op. 8: IV. “Dance of Death (Hawking for the Partridge)”

Single-movement work with a libretto and title, libretto omitted due to movement title:

  • Carol for Female Choir and Piano, EHWV 137 „Christkindleins Wiegenlied“: (Sopranos, Altos) „O Jesulein zart“
Note: the above example shows an incomplete CSG listing; the key of the work is unknown and unlisted.
  • Kantate, BWV 5 „Wo soll ich fliehen hin“: II. Recitativo „Der Sünden Wust hat mich nicht nur befleckt“

Movement with a title. The Work and Opus framework is overridden as there is a composer-assigned work title:

  • Pictures at an Exhibition: IIa. Andante. “The Old Castle”



Libretto

Movement
Position Container Dramatic Position Form Tempo Vocalization Title Libretto Role

(Description)

If a movement has a title, then the Libretto section of the movement framework should be omitted.

Framework
  1. The libretto should be surrounded by double quotes of a type appropriate to the language of the libretto's text, not the language being used for the CSG title. This should then be offset from the rest of the movement title by a single space.
    • For Latin text, use U+201C and U+201D (“ and ”).
    • For other languages, Wikipedia may be of assistance in determining the correct quotation marks to use.
  2. The libretto text should not be the entire text of the movement, but only some useful segment from the beginning of the libretto, typically the first phrase or phrases.
  3. The libretto should be properly accented and correctly punctuated, as appropriate to the language of the libretto.
Examples

Movement with a libretto only:

  • Mitridate, rè di Ponto, K. 74a / KV 87: Act I, Scene X. No. 8 Cavata. „Se di lauri il crine adorno“
  • Canon for 3 Voices in 1 in F major, K. 507: Canon. „Heiterkeit und leichtes Blut“

Movement with a libretto only, where the work also has a title:

  • Song for Solo Voice and Basso continuo in F major, K. 47e / K3 43b / KV 53 „An die Freude“: Mäßig. „Freude, Königin der Weisen“
  • Song for Solo Voice and Piano in D major, K. 125h / KV 148 „Auf die feierliche Johannisloge“: Longsam. „O heiliges Band der Freundschaft treuer Brüder“



Role

Movement
Position Container Dramatic Position Form Tempo Vocalization Title Libretto Role

This identifies which role(s) perform within a vocal work.

Capitalization
Each role ought to be properly capitalized:
  1. Names should be capitalized.
  2. Other roles — ‘choir’, ‘servants’, etc. — should be lowercased.
Ordering
  1. Named roles should be listed before other roles.
  2. Roles in each group — named and unnamed — should be listed alphabetically.
  3. Roles with multiple names should be listed by the first letter of the role name, not the last name.
Example: Alice Smith, Fred, Tom Brown, chorus, servants
Framework
  1. The listing of roles should be surrounded by parenthesis ("(" and ")").
  2. The parenthesis should be preceeded by a single space.
Examples
  • Così fan tutte ossia La scuola degli amanti, K. 588: Act II, Scene Ultima No. 31 Finale. Allegro molto «Fortunato l'uom che prende» (Despina, Don Alfonso, Dorabella, Fiordiligi, Ferrando, Guglielmo, chor)
  • Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, K. 527: Act I, Scene VII. No. 5 Coro «Giovinette, che fate all'amore» (Zerlina, coro)
  • Le nozze di Figaro, K. 492: Act II, Scene II. Recitativo. «Bravo! che bella voce!» (Cherubino, La Contessa, Susanna)

Special Cases

Insert Arias and other dual-catalogued works

Movement
Position Container Dramatic Position Form Tempo Vocalization Title Libretto Role Work Indication


In some rare cases, most frequently with insert arias to operas, movements will also appear separately within the same catalog. In such a case, the catalogued work should be entered twice, once as a standalone work, once as a movement of a larger work.

In other cases, when an overall work had multiple composers, only part of the overall work may be catalogued within a specific composer's catalogue. In such a case, the work will only appear once within the catalogue, and should be entered only once, but the catalogue number for that work will apply to only certain movement(s), and not to the overall work.

In either case, when entering the movement, after the Role Identification, append the movement-specific catalog number, surrounded by square brackets ([,]).

Examples
  • Insert aria contained both within the appendix to the opera and separately cataloged:
  • Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni for Soprano in G major, K. 540a/deest: No. 10a. Appendix. Aria «Dalla sua pace» (Tenor)
  • Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, K. 527: Anhang. Act I, Scene XIV. No. 10a Aria. «Dalla sua pace» (Don Ottavio) [K. 540a]
  • Collaboratively composed opera, only the single movement bears the catalog number:
  • Der Stein der Weisen: Act II. Duett. „Nun, liebes Weibchen“ (Lubanara, Lubano) [K. 592a / KV 625]




Status: Unedited below this point


Form and Tempo

This sub-framework stores the form and tempo of a movement.

The Form ought to always have the first word capitalized, with any remaining words capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the form.

Though traditionally Italian tempos have been used, tempos can be any many languages, including French, German, and English. Tempos ought to always have the first word capitalized with any remaining words in a single tempo indication should be capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the tempo. If there is no composer specified tempo for a work, use "(no tempo indication)" without the quotation marks to indicate this absence.

The most basic structure of this sub-framework is:

  • [ Form ]. [ Tempo ]

Examples:

  • Concerto for Piano No. 13 in C major, K. 387b / KV 415: II. Andante
  • Concerto for Piano No. 13 in C major, K. 387b / KV 415: III. Rondeau. Allegro
  • Concerto for Bassoon in B-flat major, K. 186e / KV 191: III. Rondeau. Tempo di menuetto

However, many movements change tempo in the middle of the movement, sometimes multiple times. To indicate a tempo change, add the additional tempo(s) after the initial tempo, and connect them using an ASCII hyphen separated by one ASCII space on either side ( - ). Additional tempos ought to be lowercased.

Structure:

  • [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] - [ tempo ]

Examples:

  • Fugue for Piano in C major, K. 383a / 394: II. Fugue. Andante maestoso - adagio
  • Recitative for Tenor and Orchestra in C major, K. 33i / KV 36: Allegro maestoso - andante - maestoso - allegro - andante - maestoso - andante

In rare cases, you may also have a form which has a common title. This should be capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the title, and contained within standard quotation marks. Note, this position is only for forms with titles, not movement titles.

Structure:

  • [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] - [ tempo ] "[ Form Title ]"

You may then also have multiple forms within a movement. Add each additional form after the tempo of the prior form and connect them using an ampersand separated by one ASCII space on either side ( & ). The first letter of each additional form should be capitalized, with any additional words within the form capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the form.

Structure:

  • [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] - [ tempo ] "[ Form Title ]" & [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] - [ tempo ] "[ Form Title ]"

Examples:

  • 3 German Dances for Orchestra in C major, K. 605 No. 3: German Dance & Trio "Die Schlittenfahrt" & Coda
  • Sonata for Piano No. 6 in D major, K. 205b / KV 284 "Dürnitz": III. Tema. Andante & Variations I - X & Variation XI. Adagio cantabile & Variation XII. Allegro

In the extreme case that you also have tempos within forms which themselves also have titles, the tempo title should be capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the title, and contained within standard quotation marks. It is to be positioned immediately following that specific tempo, and, if that tempo is followed by another tempo, positioned prior to the connecting hyphen.

Structure:

  • [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] "[ Tempo Title ]" - [ tempo ] "[ Tempo Title ]" "[ Form Title ]" & [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] "[ Tempo Title ]" - [ tempo ] "[ Tempo Title ]" "[ Form Title ]"

Example:

  • Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral": IV. Recitative. Presto - allegro ma non troppo - vivace - adagio cantabile - allegro assai - presto "O Freunde" - allegro assai "Freude, schöner Götterfunken" - alla marcia - allegro assai vivace "Froh, wie seine Sonnen" - andante maestoso "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!" - adagio ma non troppo, ma divoto "Ihr, stürzt nieder" - allegro energico, sempre ben marcato "Freude, schöner Götterfunken" - "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!" - allegro ma non tanto "Freude, Tochter aus Elysium!" - prestissimo "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!"

Note that "Recitative and Aria" and "Minuet and Trio" each indicate two sub-movements, not a single form. They ought not to be combined within a single Movement Identification.

Special note on tempos: Please do not 'shorten' them. "Allegro" and "Allegro moderato" are not exactly the same thing.


  1. A reference list of Roman numerals may be found on the CSG resource page.
  2. This is an official exception to ABreviation Style.