Difference between revisions of "History:CSGv2/Work/Title/Work and opus identification Proposal"

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Revision as of 03:48, 13 December 2010


Status: This page describes an active style guideline proposal and is not official.



Proposal number: RFC-82
Champion: BrianFreud
Current status: Awaiting NGS implementation for final revision and passage.

RFC

Trac ticket # 4426

The Classical Style Guidelines:

CSG for Works

The Work and Opus Identification Framework


Classical Work

{{hanging cell

color1 = DD6666 cell1 = Work and Opus

}}{{hanging cell

color1 = BB6611 color2 = 99CC44 color3 = CC88AA color4 = 11CC99 color5 = 9999FF cell1 = Work Form cell2 = Instrumentation and voicing cell3 = Key cell4 = Scale cell5 = Catalogue and Opus

}}

Official Documentation > Style Guidelines > The Classical Style Guidelines
Artist
Title: Work and Opus | Movement | Ornamentation | Special Cases


Most classical composers have their works contained either within opuses or catalogues. The Work and Opus Identification section of a CSG for Works title identifies a particular work and the catalogue or opus identifier to which the work belongs.



Basic Framework

The basic framework includes the work type, the instrumentation, the key, the scale, and the catalogue or opus identification.

Framework


Work Form for Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key Scale , Catalogue Identifier and Number
Work Form for Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key Scale , Opus Number


'Connecting' words

'For' and 'in' should use their linguistic equivalents; e.g., French CSG for Works would use 'pour', German CSG for Works would use 'für', etc.



Work Form

Work and Opus
Work Form Instrumentation and voicing Key Scale Catalogue and Opus


This is the form, or type, of the overall composition, such as 'symphony'.[1]

  1. The form should normally be capitalized using sentence case, e.g., 'Incidental music'.
  2. The form should almost always use the correct linguistic equivalent for whichever version of CSG for Works is being used. For example, if English CSG for Works is being used, 'Symphonie' would be incorrect, while 'Symphony' would be correct.
    Note: This should not be understood to mean that Artist Intent is overidden. If the composer invented a new name for the composition's form, then that name should be used untranslated. 'Symphonie fantastique' would be correct in English CSG for Works, whereas 'Fantastic symphony' would not.



Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s)

Work and Opus
Work Form Instrumentation and voicing Key Scale Catalogue and Opus


This is a listing of the instruments and/or vocal types[2] found in the overall composition.

  1. Instruments and vocal types should always be lowercased, unless the instrument's name itself contains a proper name.
  2. For multiple instruments or vocal types, the quantities should be indicated using Arabic numerals, not spelled out.
  3. For listings of three or more instruments and/or vocal types, use a serial comma.
  4. When listing more than 2 instruments and/or vocal types, spell out 'and' (or its linguistic equivalent). Do not use an ampersand.
  5. For a case which the count is singular (1 of something), do not indicate singular counts.
  6. No particular ordering is more correct. However, if an instrument is featured in the composition, it should be listed first.
  7. Certain work types imply an instrument, e.g. a 'concerto' is defined as a composition for solo instrument and orchestra. Thus, any concerto should always have 'orchestra', listed last, in the instruments list.


Incorrect Correct
Piano piano
Two flutes 2 flutes
piano, 2 organs and cello piano, 2 organs, and cello
3 pianos, 2 organs, 4 tenors, & soprano 3 pianos, 2 organs, 4 tenors, and soprano
1 viola and 2 cellos viola and 2 cellos
Concerto for orchestra and piano Concerto for piano and orchestra
Concerto for violin Concerto for violin and orchestra



Key and Scale

Work and Opus
Work Form Instrumentation and voicing Key Scale Catalogue and Opus


This is the key and scale in which overall composition is composed.[3]

  1. The key and scale should always stay consistent with the language being used for the title, e.g., do not use the French 'La dièse majeur' in a German CSG for Works title.
  2. Keys should always be uppercased, unless it is more musicologically correct within the particular language that minor keys be lowercased. e.g. 'si minore'.
  3. Scales should always be lowercased, unless it is more musicologically correct within the particular language that minor keys be uppercased. e.g. 'His-Dur'.
  4. When keys are written in English, "sharp" and "flat" must always be lowercased and linked to the key with a hyphen ('E-flat'). For other languages, use whatever hyphenation and/or spacing is most musicologically correct.

Examples of correct capitalization and punctuation for keys and scales in various languages may be found on the CSG resource page.



Catalogue Identifier, Catalogue Number, and Opus Number

Work and Opus
Work Form Instrumentation and voicing Key Scale Catalogue and Opus


Some classical composers, especially the more well known ones, have had their works catalogued by another person.[4] These catalogues often have quite long names, and thus standard abbreviations are used for them, e.g., 'BWV' or 'KV'. The catalogue abbreviation should be used[5], with the catalogue's number for the work then following.

Examples
BWV 954
HWV 295
K. 509 No. 1


Alternately, some composers catalogue themselves using opus numbers.

Example
The opus contains only one composition: Op. 88
The opus contains multiple compositions: Op. 116 No. 1
Note: Opus should always be abbreviated 'Op.' (including the period)[6].


  1. A catalogue or opus number can refer to only a single composition, or to many, each individually numbered within the catalogue or opus number.
  2. Some composers have had multiple catalogues made of their works. Such catalogues, if they are considered definitive (and are not musicologically unimportant) may each be listed in the work title, each catalogue identifier separated by ' / ' (space forward-slash space).
  3. Some rare movements have two catalogue numbers from within the same catalogue; one for the movement, and one for the overall composition. The catalogue number which should be used at this point is the one assigned to the overall composition.



Application


Applied, the basic framework then looks like this:


Work form for instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key scale , Catalogue Identifier and Number
Canon for 3 voices in 1 in C major , K. 553
Concerto for bassoon in B-flat major , K. 186e / KV 191
Work form for instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key scale , Opus Number
Trio for violin, viola, and cello in E-flat major , Op. 3


Advanced structure

The basic framework defines the Work and Opus identification for most cases. However, there are special cases which add some complexity.

The advanced cases described below insert modifications into the basic framework. These modifications should be combined as needed.

Numbered works


Work and Opus
Work Form Numbered work form Instrumentation and voicing Numbered work form for
instrument(s) and/or vocal(s)
Key Scale Catalogue and Opus Numbered composition within
a catalogue number or opus


Many composers, in addition to opuses or catalogs, have had their works numbered. The number can identify fall in one of several places, however, depending on just what is being counted.


Framework

Case 1
Work form Work form number for Instrumentation/vocals in Key Scale , Catalogue/Opus
Case 2
Work form for Instrumentation/vocals Work form for instrumentation number in Key Scale , Catalogue/Opus
Case 3
Work form for Instrumentation/vocals in Key Scale , Catalogue/Opus Number within Catalogue number or Opus


Possible cases resulting in numbered works:

  1. The number may be counting a particular work type, regardless of instrumentation or vocal types, in which case it would be inserted between the Work Type and the Instrumentation.
  2. The number may be counting a particular work type paired with a particular instrumentation or vocal type(s), in which case it would be inserted between the Instrumentation and the Key.
  3. The number may be counting which work within an opus is being identified, in which case the work number would be added directly after the Catalogue or Opus identification. (Also reference Catalogue and Opus identification.)


Applied

Work form Work number
(case 1)
for Instrumentation/vocals Work for
instrumentation number
(case 2)
in Key Scale , Catalogue/Opus Number within
Catalogue/Opus
(case 3)
Case 1
Symphony
No. 5
for orchestra in B-flat major , K. 22
Case 2
Concerto for piano
No. 1
in F major , K. 37
Case 3
Sonata for piano in F minor , Op. 2
No. 1
12 German Dances for orchestra in C major , K. 567
No. 12
Cases 1 and 3 simultaneously
Sonata
No. 3
for piano in F minor , Op. 2
No. 1


Abbreviating 'number'

Each language abbreviates the linguistic equivalent of 'number' differently. The correct abbreviation should be used, depending on whichever language version of CSG for Works is being used. '#', 'Number', and 'Num' should never be used.
Do not mistake the character "º" (masculine ordinal[7]) with "°" (degree). The masculine ordinal character should always be used; the degree character should never be used.
Note that Italian and Russian use '№' (numero sign[8]), not 'N' plus the masculine ordinal.
English
No.
French
German
Nr.
Italian
Portugese
Russian
№ (This is also correct for any other cyrillic-using language.)
Spanish



Named works


Work and Opus
Work Form Instrumentation and voicing Key Scale Name Catalogue and Opus


Framework

Work Type for Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key Scale , Catalogue Identifier and Number " (Common) Name "


A composition may be named. This may be an official name given by the composer, e.g., "Tristan und Isolde", "The Seasons", or "A London Symphony", or a name by which the work has come to be known (a 'common' name), e.g., the "Jupiter" symphony.

  1. For works with a name, the name should be placed after the catalog or opus number.
  2. If there is a opus work number present, the name is placed after that as well.
  3. The name ought to be surrounded by quotation marks of the type correct for the CSG language style being used.
  4. If there is more than one name for a composition, within the quotes use ' / ' (space forward-slash space) to separate the names.
  5. The name should be capitalized according to the appropriate Capitalization Standard for that name's language.


Examples
Symphony No. 41 for Orchestra in C major, K. 551 "Jupiter"
Missa brevis No. 9 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 196b / KV 220 "Spatzenmesse"
Kantate, BWV 106 "Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste Zeit / Actus tragicus"


Attention.png Please note that this section is dealing with an entire composition with a name, and not with a named movement within a composition. Please reference the Common Identification section of the Movement framework if you are dealing with a named movement rather than a named composition.



Variations based on other works


Work and Opus
Work Form (Composer of basis work) Basis work Instrumentation and voicing Key Scale Catalogue and Opus


Variations insert one CSG for Works title entirely into another. The work upon which the variations are based is referred to here as the basis work.


Framework

If the composer who wrote the basis work is the same composer as the variations, then use:

Work Type on Basis work for Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key Scale , Catalogue/Opus

If it is not the same composer, then use:

Work Type on Composer of basis work : Basis work for Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key Scale , Catalogue/Opus


Applied

Same composer:

Work form on Basis work for instrumentation/vocals in Key scale , Catalogue/Opus
Symphony on Serenade No. 7 for Orchestra in D major, K. 249 "Haffner" for Orchestra in D major , K. *248b / KV *250 NMA IV/11/7 No. 2


Different composers:

Work form on Composer of basis work : Basis work for instrumentation/vocals in Key scale , Catalogue/Opus
Canon on Antonio Salieri : La fiera di Venezia: "Mio caro Adone" for 3 Voices in 1 in C major , K. 553
Concerto on Dutch Traditional : "Wilhelmus van Nassau" for Bassoon in B-flat major , K. 186e / KV 191
Trio on André Ernest Modeste Grétry : Les mariages samnites: March "Dieu d'amour" for Violin, Viola, and Cello in E-flat major , Op. 3



Unusual catalog numbers: Anh, Anhang, Appendix, deest, desunt, vel, and WoO


Work and Opus
Work Form Instrumentation and voicing Key Scale Catalogue and Opus


Within a catalog number, when dealing with more obscure or fragmentary works, the terms 'Anh', 'Anhang', 'Appendix', 'deest', 'desunt', 'vel', and 'WoO' will be sometimes be encountered.

Anh or Anhang
German for 'Appendix'
Appendix
The appendix to a classical composer's works list. This may contain such items as variant versions and/or arrangements of a composition numbered in the main listing, compositions of doubtful attribution, compositions which only exist in fragmentary or sketch form, spurious works, etc.
deest
Latin for 'not present'. These works are typically ones discovered after a composer's catalog is published. In some cases, where later editions of a composer's catalog are published, these works are deest for the initial catalog(s), but have assigned catalog numbers in the later edition(s). Occasionally, if it is decided that the work is perhaps spurious, then later editions may also remove a work from the catalog, such that the work originally had a catalog number, but later became deest.
desunt
Plural form of 'deest'.
vel
Latin for 'if you prefer'. This will be found between two work forms or catalog numbers.
Between two work forms, this indicates that, for the specific composition, the two forms were considered equivalent:
Between two catalog numbers, this indicates that the two compositions were assigned different catalog numbers, but are almost, but not, the same. The "vel ..." section is sometimes omitted, but if it is present, the most correct catalog number includes it.
WoO
An abbreviation for 'Werk ohne Opuszahl' (German), which translates to 'Work without Opus number'. Like deest, this indicates works which are not otherwise cataloged.
  1. Works with an Anhung number should use the abbreviation 'Anh'.[9]
  2. None of these terms should be translated. If the catalog number includes "Appendix", then German CSG should use "Appendix". If the catalog number includes "Anhung", then English CSG should use "Anh".
  3. Note the spelling and capitalization for WoO. The abbreviated term is the German one, not the English translation. "WOO", "WwO", "Wwo", "Woo", etc. are not correct.
Examples
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Canonical Study, K. 73x/K2 Anh 109d
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Psalm in C major, K. 166h/KV Anh 23 / Fr 1774a (fragment): "In te Domine speravi"
  • Johann Sebastian Bach - Partita, BWV Anh. 78, "Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein"
  • Sanctus for 4 Voices in E-flat major, K. 296c/K3 296b(discussion)/KV deest
This composition was not listed in the original or second edition Köchel catalogs. The third edition of the Köchel catalog listed in the discussion section of K3 296b, but did not assign it its own catalog number. Then the sixth edition of Köchel finally decided it was likely composed by Mozart, and assigned it K. 296c.
  • Matthias Weckmann - Toccata vel praeludium in D minor
As Weckmann described it, when this work was composed, he considered a 'toccata' to essentially have become the same work form as a 'praeludium', thus the work could be considered to be of either work form.
  • Johann Sebastian Bach - Cantata for 2 voices, mixed chorus, and orchestra, BWV 197a/7 vel 398 "Ehre sei Gott in der Höhe"
BWV 197a/7 vel 398 has a passage in the bass line which is lower by an octave than the version in BWV 197a/7, but otherwise the two compositions are identical.
  • Johannes Brahms - Hungarian Dance for Four Hands in G minor, WoO 1 No. 1: Allegro molto



Non-standard Modes


Work and Opus
Work Form Instrumentation and voicing Key Scale Mode Catalogue and Opus


Framework

Work Type for Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key Scale Mode , Catalogue Identifier and Number
Work Type for Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key Mode Scale , Catalogue Identifier and Number
Work Type for Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key Mode , Catalogue Identifier and Number
Work Type for Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Mode , Catalogue Identifier and Number

Works are assumed, by default, to use the seven note diatonic scale. This is the scale most frequently used in Western music, especially any music composed since the 15th century.[10]

However, in some cases, an alternate mode[11] may be indicated.[12] These can include the augmented, chromatic, whole tone, aeolian, pentatonic, octatonic, and diminished modes, to name only the more common ones. When needed, the key and scale should be modified to include the mode. Typically the mode will go after the scale, but in some cases (chromatic and whole tone), it is more grammatically and musicologically correct that it either precede or replace the scale.

Examples
  • B major diminished
  • C/C-sharp chromatic

Microtones and non-diatonic full/half tone keys


Work and Opus
Work Form Instrumentation and voicing Key Scale Catalogue and Opus


When dealing with alternate temperments[13] or microtones[14], especially in enharmonic compositions or compositions from non-Western sources[15], quarter-, three-quarter, and other unusual keys may be encountered.

For works using keys other than the standard diatonic full and half-tone ('flat' or 'sharp') keys, use them as needed. Just as with 'flat' and 'sharp', the key should be spelled out and linked to the scale using the same standard method as the more common half-tones.[16]


Microtones, standard keys, and some of the uncommon keys
Incorrect Correct What is it?
English French German Italian Russian Spanish
- A A A A A A full tone
A A-sharp La dièse Ais La diesis Ля диез La sostenido half tone sharp
ATemplate:music A-semi-sharp La dièse barré - La semi-diesis Ля полу-диез La semisostenido quarter tone sharp *
ATemplate:music A-double sharp La double dièse Aisis La doppio diesis Ля дубль-диез La doble sostenido two chromatic tones sharp
ATemplate:music A-sesqui-sharp La trois-demi de dièse - La diesis e mezzo Ля полтора диеза La sostenido y medio three-quarter tone sharp *
A A-flat La bémol As La bemolle Ля бемоль La bemol half tone flat
ATemplate:music A-semi-flat La demi bémol - La semi-bemolle Ля полу-бемоль La semibemol quarter tone flat *
ATemplate:music A-double flat La double bémol Asas La doppio bemolle Ля дубль-бемоль La doble bemol two chromatic tones flat
ATemplate:music A-sesqui-flat La trois-demi de bémol - La bemolle e mezzo Ля полтора бемоля La bemol y medio three-quarter tone flat *

* Note that there is not yet any standardized term for quarter-tone accidentals in German, though there is a standardized term in for each of the four accidentals in Arabic, English, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portugese, Russian, and Spanish. It is suggested that any work which would require mention of a quarter-tone accidental be limited to CSG in a language which can adequately describe the correct key for the work.



Non-standard scales


Work and Opus
Work Form Instrumentation and voicing Key Scale Catalogue and Opus
Status: Everything below this point is in need of cleanup for CSGv2

Framework

Work Type for Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key Scale , Catalogue Identifier and Number

NOT DONE YET

  • For works using non-diatonic scales, such as Persian or Yaman, insert the scale indication before the Key. ("...in Yaman A major")
  • For works using diatonic scale modifications such as harmonic or melodic, insert the scale modification indication before the Key (and after the non-diatonic scale name, if needed). ("...in Yaman harmonic A major")
  • For works using Scales other than major or minor, use them as needed. They ought to be properly capitalized or lowercase, depending upon the name of the scale and the rules within the language being used.



Modulating Keys, Modes, and/or Scales


Work and Opus
Work Form Instrumentation and voicing Key Scale Mode Catalogue and Opus


Framework

Work Type for Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key to Modulated Key Scale , Catalogue Identifier and Number
Work Type for Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s) in Key Scale to Modulated Scale , Catalogue Identifier and Number

Some rare works use modulating keys, modes, or scales. In such cases, list both keys, modes, and/or scales. The linguistic equivalent of 'to' should then be used to connect the two.

Example
  • Modulating Prelude for Piano in F major to E minor, K. deest NMA IX/27/2 No. 2

Notes and References

  1. A list of common (and uncommon) work forms is available on the CSG resource page.
  2. A list of all standard and opera vocal types can be found on the CSG resource page.
  3. Some work forms, such as a symphony, can change key and/or scale within or between movements. For such works, use the initial key and scale of the first movement, unless there is good reason to use a different key and scale. However, always stay consistent; do not use the key of the first movement but the scale of the third movement. For the special case of modulating keys, modes, and/or scales, see the applicable advanced structure.
  4. Cataloguer Relationship Type can be used to link these cataloguers with the artist whom they catalogued.
  5. This overrides Abbreviation Style; catalogue identifiers should be abbreviated.
  6. This overrides Abbreviation Style; Opus should be abbreviated.
  7. To type a masculine ordinal (U+00BA): Windows: Alt+0186, Linux: Ctrl+Shift+U 00BA, Mac: See Apple's support
  8. To type a numero sign (U+2116): Windows: Alt+2116, Linux: Ctrl+Shift+U 2116, Mac: See Apple's support
  9. This overrides Abbreviation Style; catalogue identifiers should be abbreviated.
  10. When did modal music give way to the modern key system?
  11. Music theory online : notes, harmonies & scales: Modes
  12. What were the twelve modes?
  13. Music theory online : pitch, temperament & timbre
  14. The Tone and Semitone; Microtones
  15. True not only for modern or non-western compositions; see Antoine de Bertrand's Je suis tellement amoureux.
  16. The CSG resource page has a reference listing for full and half-tone keys in various languages.