History:CSGv2/Work/Title/Work and opus identification Proposal
|Status: This page describes an active style guideline proposal and is not official.|
Trac ticket # 4426
- CSG for Works
The Work and Opus Identification Framework
Most classical composers have their works contained either within opuses or catalogues. The Work and Opus Identification section of a CSG for Works title identifies a particular work and the catalogue or opus identifier to which the work belongs.
- 1 The Work and Opus Identification Framework
- 1.1 Basic Framework
- 1.2 Advanced structure
- 1.2.1 Numbered works
- 1.2.2 Named works
- 1.2.3 Variations based on other works
- 1.2.4 Unusual catalog numbers: Anhang, Appendix, deest, WwO
- 1.2.5 Movements with multiple identifier numbers
- 1.2.6 'Super' opuses
- 1.2.7 Non-standard Modes
- 1.2.8 Microtones and non-diatonic full/half tone keys
- 1.2.9 Non-standard scales
- 1.2.10 Modulating Keys, Modes, and/or Scales
- 1.3 Notes and References
The basic framework includes the work type, the instrumentation, the key, the scale, and the catalogue or opus identification.
|Work Form||for||Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s)||in||Key||Scale||,||Catalogue Identifier and Number|
|Work Form||for||Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s)||in||Key||Scale||,||Opus Number|
'For' and 'in' should use their linguistic equivalents; e.g., French CSG for Works would use 'pour', German CSG for Works would use 'für', etc.
|Work and Opus|
This is the form, or type, of the overall composition, such as 'symphony'.
- The form should normally be capitalized using sentence case, e.g., 'Incidental music'.
- The form should almost always use the correct linguistic equivalent for whichever version of CSG for Works is being used. For example, if English CSG for Works is being used, 'Symphonie' would be incorrect, while 'Symphony' would be correct.
- Note: This should not be understood to mean that Artist Intent is overidden. If the composer invented a new name for the composition's form, then that name should be used untranslated. 'Symphonie fantastique' would be correct in English CSG for Works, whereas 'Fantastic symphony' would not.
Instrumentation and/or vocal type(s)
|Work and Opus|
This is a listing of the instruments and/or vocal types found in the overall composition.
- Instruments and vocal types should always be lowercased, unless the instrument's name itself contains a proper name.
- For multiple instruments or vocal types, the quantities should be indicated using Arabic numerals, not spelled out.
- For listings of three or more instruments and/or vocal types, use a serial comma.
- When listing more than 2 instruments and/or vocal types, spell out 'and' (or its linguistic equivalent). Do not use an ampersand.
- For a case which the count is singular (1 of something), do not indicate singular counts.
- No particular ordering is more correct. However, if an instrument is featured in the composition, it should be listed first.
- Certain work types imply an instrument, e.g. a 'concerto' is defined as a composition for solo instrument and orchestra. Thus, any concerto should always have 'orchestra', listed last, in the instruments list.
Incorrect Correct Piano piano Two flutes 2 flutes piano, 2 organs and cello piano, 2 organs, and cello 3 pianos, 2 organs, 4 tenors, & soprano 3 pianos, 2 organs, 4 tenors, and soprano 1 viola and 2 cellos viola and 2 cellos Concerto for orchestra and piano Concerto for piano and orchestra Concerto for violin Concerto for violin and orchestra
Key and Scale
|Work and Opus|
This is the key and scale in which overall composition is composed.
- The key and scale should always stay consistent with the language being used for the title, e.g., do not use the French 'La dièse majeur' in a German CSG for Works title.
- Keys should always be uppercased, unless it is more musicologically correct within the particular language that minor keys be lowercased. e.g. 'si minore'.
- Scales should always be lowercased, unless it is more musicologically correct within the particular language that minor keys be uppercased. e.g. 'His-Dur'.
- When keys are written in English, "sharp" and "flat" must always be lowercased and linked to the key with a hyphen ('E-flat'). For other languages, use whatever hyphenation and/or spacing is most musicologically correct.
Examples of correct capitalization and punctuation for keys and scales in various languages may be found on the CSG resource page.
Catalogue Identifier, Catalogue Number, and Opus Number
|Work and Opus|
Some classical composers, especially the more well known ones, have had their works catalogued by another person. These catalogues often have quite long names, and thus standard abbreviations are used for them, e.g., 'BWV' or 'KV'. The catalogue abbreviation should be used, with the catalogue's number for the work then following.
- BWV 954
- HWV 295
- K. 509 No. 1
Alternately, some composers catalogue themselves using opus numbers.
- The opus contains only one composition: Op. 88
- The opus contains multiple compositions: Op. 116 No. 1
- Note: Opus should always be abbreviated 'Op.' (including the period).
- A catalogue or opus number can refer to only a single composition, or to many, each individually numbered within the catalogue or opus number.
- Reference Abbreviating 'number' for more information on how the word "number" should be indicated.
- Some composers have had multiple catalogues made of their works. Such catalogues, if they are considered definitive (and are not musicologically unimportant) may each be listed in the work title, each catalogue identifier separated by ' / ' (space forward-slash space).
- Some rare movements have two catalogue numbers from within the same catalogue; one for the movement, and one for the overall composition. The catalogue number which should be used at this point is the one assigned to the overall composition.
Applied, the basic framework then looks like this:
|Work form||for||instrumentation and/or vocal type(s)||in||Key||scale||,||Catalogue Identifier and Number|
|Canon||for||3 voices in 1||in||C||major||,||K. 553|
|Concerto||for||bassoon||in||B-flat||major||,||K. 186e / KV 191|
|Work form||for||instrumentation and/or vocal type(s)||in||Key||scale||,||Opus Number|
|Trio||for||violin, viola, and cello||in||E-flat||major||,||Op. 3|
The basic framework defines the Work and Opus identification for most cases. However, there are special cases which add some complexity.
The advanced cases described below insert modifications into the basic framework. These modifications should be combined as needed.
|Work and Opus|
Many composers, in addition to opuses or catalogs, have had their works numbered. The number can identify fall in one of several places, however, depending on just what is being counted.
- Case 1
Work form Work form number for Instrumentation/vocals in Key Scale , Catalogue/Opus
- Case 2
Work form for Instrumentation/vocals Work form for instrumentation number in Key Scale , Catalogue/Opus
- Case 3
Work form for Instrumentation/vocals in Key Scale , Catalogue/Opus Number within Catalogue number or Opus
Possible cases resulting in numbered works:
- The number may be counting a particular work type, regardless of instrumentation or vocal types, in which case it would be inserted between the Work Type and the Instrumentation.
- The number may be counting a particular work type paired with a particular instrumentation or vocal type(s), in which case it would be inserted between the Instrumentation and the Key.
- The number may be counting which work within an opus is being identified, in which case the work number would be added directly after the Catalogue or Opus identification. (Also reference Catalogue and Opus identification.)
|Work form||Work number
|12 German Dances||for||orchestra||in||C||major||,||K. 567|
|Cases 1 and 3 simultaneously|
NOT DONE YET
A composition may be named. This may be an official name given by the composer, e.g., 'Tristan und Isolde', 'The Seasons', or 'A London Symphony', or a name by which the work has come to be known, e.g., the 'Jupiter' Symphony.
Variations based on other works
If the composer who wrote the basis work is the same composer as the variations, then use:
If it is not the same composer, then use:
Unusual catalog numbers: Anhang, Appendix, deest, WwO
NOT DONE YET
Movements with multiple identifier numbers
NOT DONE YET
Rarely, a case can occur where an opus is itself part of an even larger opus - a 'super' opus. In such cases, the CSG for Works framework still applies, but modified such that the Work and opus identification framework is used multiple times, as needed for each increased 'container' opus level.
Rather than the normal:
Works are assumed, by default, to use the seven note diatonic scale. This is the scale most frequently used in Western music, especially any music composed since the 15th century.
However, in some cases, an alternate mode may be indicated. These can include the augmented, chromatic, whole tone, aeolian, pentatonic, octatonic, and diminished modes, to name only the more common ones. When needed, the key and scale should be modified to include the mode. Typically the mode will go after the scale, but in some cases (chromatic and whole tone), it is more grammatically and musicologically correct that it either precede or replace the scale.
Microtones and non-diatonic full/half tone keys
For works using keys other than the standard diatonic full and half-tone ('flat' or 'sharp') keys, use them as needed. Just as with 'flat' and 'sharp', the key should be spelled out and linked to the scale using the same standard method as the more common half-tones.
NOT DONE YET
Modulating Keys, Modes, and/or Scales
Some rare works use modulating keys, modes, or scales. In such cases, list both keys, modes, and/or scales. The linguistic equivalent of 'to' should then be used to connect the two.
Notes and References