Difference between revisions of "User:BrianFreud/sandbox"

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Revision as of 03:25, 8 February 2008

Alert.png DO NOT USE THIS. DO NOT USE THIS. DO NOT USE THIS.

THIS IS TOTALLY UNOFFICIAL. THIS IS NOT THE CLASSICAL STYLE GUIDELINES PAGE.

You want this page instead: ClassicalStyleGuide

The Classical Style Guidelines

Introduction to CSG

  1. What is CSG?
  2. What is CSG not?
  3. Is there one particular CSG?
  4. In what circumstances ought CSG to not be used?
  5. The History of CSG

The Guidelines

  1. Who is considered a “classical” composer?
  2. What constitutes a distinct classical release?
    1. What about box sets?
  1. Who is the artist for a classical work?
  2. How to title a classical release?
  3. What is the structure for a CSG titles?
    1. The Work and Opus Framework
      1. Special Case: Numbered Works
      2. Special Case: Named Works
      3. Special Case: Variations of Other Works
      4. Special Case: Works Using Modulating Keys, Modes, or Scales
      5. Special Case: Works Using Non-Standard or Non-European Keys, Modes, or Scales
    1. The Movement Framework
      1. Work Position
      2. Movement Container
      3. Dramatic Position
      4. Form and Tempo
      5. Vocalization
      6. Common Identification
      7. Role Identification
      8. Special Case: Insert Arias and Other Separately Catalogued Works
    1. The Ornamentation Framework
    2. Special CSG frameworks for...
      1. Da capos and Dal segnos
      2. Opera
        1. Special Case: Ballet Music
      1. Variations within Movements
      2. Work Condition or Version Information
    1. Punctuation Within CSG Titles
    2. Applying CSG Titles to Tracks
      1. Special Case: Ornamentation
  1. The Release Language for a Classical Release
  2. Advanced Relationships (ARs) for a Classical Release
    1. At the release level or at the track level?

Resources

  1. Keys and scales in commonly used languages
  2. Roman numerals from 0 to 125
  3. Vocal classifications


Introduction to CSG

What is CSG?

The "Classical Style Guidelines" (CSG) describe a structural framework which allows us to order the disparate data relating to a classical work into a structure which is consistent, logical, and comprehensible. Classical works are performed by many groups world-wide, yet often these works have no definitive title. CSG is intended to allow releases containing these works to be stored within the database and named in a clear and consistent manner.

What is CSG not?

  • CSG is not intended to cause track titles to lose their meaning where forcing any particular language into the CSG structure would cause track titles in that language to lose comprehension.
  • CSG is not intended to create a title where changing a particular title used on a release would cause us to lose contextual meaning (example).

Is there one particular CSG?

CSG is a framework, but no one language is required by it; listings can use German CSG, French CSG, English CSG, etc.

Where a standardized works list for a given composer is not yet complete, any language may be used to enter releases for that composer, so long as the CSG framework is used.

However, standardized works lists for classical composers are in development. Where a standardized works list has been completed, we ask that you use the appropriate titles from these lists, without translation or alteration, other than that described within How should these titles be applied to tracks?

Who is considered a “classical” composer?

'Classical music' is a broad term that encompasses a broad period from roughly the 9th century through to the present day. Depending upon the particular culture, classical music can be ecclesiastical, instrumental, orchestral — even electronic. To then attempt to define just what classical music is, or to define a 'classical composer', would invariably include artists who ought to be excluded, and exclude artists who ought to be included.

For our purposes, however, one possible way to determine the answer for a given composition or composer is to question which artist is the principal artist for a work. People listen to The Rolling Stones without much care for who composed the songs. With classical music, though Glenn Gould or Hilary Hahn certainly is important to the performance of the work, the composer of the music being performed is of at least co-equal importance, such that the composer, and not the performer, is the principal artist. Though no list of all classical composers could ever be considered to be complete, we do maintain an incomplete list of classical composers.

Given the breadth of composers and compositions contained within the sphere of classical music, no one guideline can be said to apply equally to all works. It is quite possible that CSG 'composer as artist' style might apply, while CSG release titling or work titling guidelines do not. This is most frequently true of modern / experimental classical composers such as Steve Reich and John Cage, soundtrack and score composers such as Michael Nyman, Ennio Morricone, and John Williams, and composers of music for professional use such as Jeffrey Fayman and Yoav Goren. However, just because all aspects of CSG may not always apply to works for any given composer, there will always be those exceptions where even works by these composers are subject to all aspects of CSG.

In what circumstances ought CSG to not be used?

If a work already has been given a specific title by the composer, such as "Part 1: IBM 1401 Processing Unit", ArtistIntent is the superior guideline, and thus, the track would not be retitled using CSG. This applies even if the worktitle provided by the composer seems generic, such as "Music for 18 Musicians: Section XI", so long as it truly is an ArtistIntent worktitle, and not simply a description of the type of work ("symphony") — see ArtistIntentVsFacts for more discussion on this subject. CSG is intended to provide a framework for titling classical works which lack clearly defined titles; it is not intended to be used as a reason to retitle a work which already has a functional title. Note that there are, of course, those few composers who are considered so inherently "classical" (J.S. Bach, W.A. Mozart, etc.) that even their few works with true "official titles" still are handled under CSG. These tend to be those pre-twentieth century composers who also have comprehensive works catalogs available for all of their works.

CSG has been designed to try to provide a framework for just about any possible classical work, assuming it falls within the guidelines described above. However, there is a huge amount of music out there. Should you find a work to which CSG would apply, but some aspect of the work simply does not fit within CSG, do not ignore all rules. Instead, it is suggested that you post a message on the UsersMailingList with "CSG" contained within the subject, providing details about the work as well as why you feel it does not fit within the CSG framework. In this manner, the community of experienced classical editors at MusicBrainz can help you to find a workable solution.

In some rare cases, the nature of a release may present a case in which CSG would normally apply, but using CSG would damage the overall ArtistIntent behind the release. (Example) Please note that though ArtistIntent is always the superior principle within the MusicBrainzPhilosophy, it is not sufficient merely to claim ArtistIntent as reason to disregard CSG. Any time that ArtistIntent is claimed as reason why a particular release is exempt from CSG, please present your reasons for claiming ArtistIntent in the edit notes.

Also note that CSG does override what is written on the liner. This is not contrary to StylePrinciple, though it initially may seem that it is, as the ConsistentOriginalData for a classical release would be the original composition, not the individual release containing a later recording of the work. As CSG only applies when the original composition does not have a specific title provided by the composer, Principle 4 of StylePrinciple is the applicable principle. CSG then becomes the guideline indicated by Principle 4.

The History of CSG

The CSG artist guidelines began in a discussion on the mb-users mailing list in January of 2004. The CSG release title and track title styles began as suggestions within that discussion. CSG continued to develop through December of 2006, when the basic guidelines were locked down as official. Throughout 2007, various discussions on more obscure areas of CSG took place in all possible discussion areas of MusicBrainz. In early 2008, CSG was revamped and rewritten by mb-style with the intent of making it both easier to understand and more comprehensive in its guidance.



The Guidelines

What constitutes a distinct classical release?

    • STUFF **

What about box sets?

Box sets are subject, first and foremost, to the StrongGuideline principles.

    • STUFF **

Who is the artist for a classical work?

The artist for the release and the tracks should always be set to the composer(s), not the performers or the conductor. If a classical release contains works by multiple composers, the release artist ought to be set to “Various Artists”, not “composer1 & composer 2& composer 3...”.

GUIDELINE CURRENTLY UNDER DEBATE

How to title a classical release?

    • STUFF **

What is the structure for CSG titles?

A CSG title has three distinct sections: the work and opus / catalog identification, the movement identification, and the identification of ornamentation used within the movement.

Classical Work
Work and Opus Movement Ornamentation

 

The Work and Opus Identification Framework

Most classical composers have their works contained either within opuses or catalogs. The Work and Opus Identification section of a CSG title identifies a particular work and the catalog or opus identifier to which the work belongs.

Basic structure:

The basic structure of the work and opus section of a CSG title includes the work type, the instrumentation, the key, the scale, and the catalog or opus number.

Work and Opus Identification
Work Type Instrumentation Key Scale Catalog / Opus Number

The framework which is to be used is either of the following:

  • [ Work Type ] for [Instrumentation ] in [ Key ] [ Scale ], [ Opus Number ]
  • [ Work Type ] for [Instrumentation ] in [ Key ] [ Scale ], [ Catalog Identifier and Catalog Number ]

This, then, looks like this:

  • Canon for 3 Voices in 1 in C major, K. 553
  • Concerto for Bassoon in B-flat major, K. 186e / KV 191
  • Concerto for Piano No. 22 in E-flat major, K. 482
  • Symphony No. 5 for Orchestra in B-flat major, K. 22
  • Trio for Violin, Viola, and Cello in E-flat major, Op. 3
The Work Type ought to always use proper capitalization.
For multiple instruments or voices, the quantities should be indicated using Arabic numerals and not written out. Serial comma style ought to be used for listings of three or more instruments and/or voices.
Connecting words like "for" and "in" ought to be their equivalent correct word in the particular language being used with CSG. ("pour", "für", "en", etc.)
The Key should always be language correct. A list of keys in various languages can be found below. It ought to be always uppercased, unless it is more correct within the language being used that minor Keys be lowercased ("si minore", for example). When keys are written in English, "sharp" and "flat" must always be lowercase and linked to the key with a hyphen ("E-flat"). A reference list of Keys and scales in commonly used languages can be found below.
The Scale ought to always be language correct. The Scale should be properly capitalized or lowercased, depending on which is correct for the language being used with CSG. In English, this means "major" and "minor" must be lowercased. The Scale is not optional - if the Key is indicated, the Scale must be as well.
The Key and the Scale ought to be separated by a space, unless this would be language incorrect. In French, English, Spanish, Italian, and Russian, this means a space is used to separate the two, thus "C major". In German, this means a hyphen is used, thus "C-Dur".


Advanced structure:

What about numbered works?
Work and Opus Identification
Work Type No. (1 & 4) Instrumentation No. (2) Key Scale Catalog / Opus Number No. (3 & 4)

Many composers, in addition to opuses or catalogs, have had their works numbered. The number can identify fall in one of several places, however, depending on just what is being counted.

  1. The number may be counting a particular work type, irregardless of instrumentation, in which case it would be inserted between the Work Type and the Instrumentation:
    • Symphony No. 5 for Orchestra in B-flat major, K. 22
  1. The number may be counting a particular work type paired with a particular instrumentation, in which case it would be inserted between the Instrumentation and the Key:
    • Concerto for Piano No. 1 in F major, K. 37
  1. The number may be counting which work within an opus is being identified, in which case the work number would be added directly after the Catalog or Opus identification:
    • Sonata for Piano in F minor, Op. 2 No. 1
    • 12 German Dances for Orchestra in C major, K. 567 No. 12
  1. Normally there will be only one number to a work, though it is possible that you could have a situation such as the 3rd numbered Sonata which also happens to be the first work within an opus:
    • Sonata No. 3 for Piano in F minor, Op. 2 No. 1

"No." is always to be used, never "Nr.", "#", "Number", "N°", etc. The numbers used should always be indicated using Arabic numerals and not spelled out.


 
What about named works?
Work and Opus Identification
Work Type No. (1 & 4) Instrumentation No. (2) Key Scale Catalog / Opus Number No. (3 & 4) "Common Name"
  • For works with a common name, the common name should be placed after the catalog or opus number. If there is a opus work number present, the common name is placed after that as well. The common name ought to be surrounded by quotation marks of the type correct for the CSG language style being used. If there is more than one common name, within the quotes use a standard ASCII forward slash with a single standard ASCII space on each side ( / ) to separate the names. The common name ought to be capitalized according to the appropriate CapitalizationStandard for that name's language.
  • Symphony No. 41 for Orchestra in C major, K. 551 "Jupiter"
  • Missa brevis No. 9 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 196b / KV 220 "Spatzenmesse"
  • Kantate, BWV 106 "Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste Zeit / Actus tragicus"

 
What about Variations of other works?
Work and Opus Identification
Work Type No. (1 & 4) Basis Work Composer Basis Work Instrumentation No. (2) Key Scale Catalog / Opus Number No. (3 & 4) "Common Name"

Variations can be rather confusing. You're essentially inserting one entire CSG work title into another. Immediately following the Work Type, insert the name of the composer of the work the variation is based upon, then the full CSG title of that work. Note that in addition to the "No." fields which normally can appear, you may also have "No." fields appearing within the basis work, providing for potentially as many as 4 "No."s to appear within the work title.

The structure looks like this:

  • [ Work Type ] on [ Basis Work Composer ]: [ Basis Work ] for [Instrumentation ] in [ Key ] [ Scale ], [ Opus Number ] [ No. ]
  • [ Work Type ] on [ Basis Work Composer ]: [ Basis Work ] for [Instrumentation ] in [ Key ] [ Scale ], [ Catalog ID and Catalog # ] [ No. ]

and looks like this:

  • 6 Variations on Antonio Salieri: La fiera di Venezia: "Mio caro Adone" for Piano in G major, K. 173c / KV 180 No. 3
  • 7 Variations on Dutch Traditional: "Wilhelmus van Nassau" for Piano in D major, K. 25 No. 2
  • 8 Variations on André Ernest Modeste Grétry: Les mariages samnites: March "Dieu d'amour" for Piano in F major, K. 374c / KV 352

If you the work being imported was composed by the same composer, the [ Basis Work Composer ]: section ought to be omitted, giving:

  • [ Work Type ] on [ Basis Work ] for [Instrumentation ] in [ Key ] [ Scale ], [ Opus Number ] [ No. ]
  • [ Work Type ] on [ Basis Work ] for [Instrumentation ] in [ Key ] [ Scale ], [ Catalog ID and Catalog # ] [ No. ]

and thus:

  • Divertimento on The Fairy's Kiss: IV. Pas de deux
  • Symphony on Serenade No. 7 for Orchestra in D major, K. *248b / KV *250 NMA IV/11/7 No. 2 "Haffner": V. Adagio - allegro assai

 
What about Modulating Keys, Modes, or Scales?

Some rare works use modulating keys, modes, or scales. In such a case, list both keys, modes, or scales, and use the equivalent translation within the CSG language style being used for the word "to" to connect them. Examples:

  • Modulating Prelude for Piano in F major to E minor, K. deest NMA IX/27/2 No. 2

 
What about Non-Standard or Non-European Keys, Modes, or Scales?
  • For works using non-diatonic scales, such as Persian or Yaman, insert the scale indication before the Key. ("...in Yaman A major")
  • For works using diatonic scale modifications such as harmonic or melodic, insert the scale modification indication before the Key (and after the non-diatonic scale name, if needed). ("...in Yaman harmonic A major")
  • For works using harmonic mode modifications (augmentation or diminishment), add the modification indication after the Scale. ("...in A major diminished")
  • For works using Scales other than major or minor, use them as needed. They ought to be properly capitalized or lowercase, depending upon the name of the scale and the rules within the language being used.
  • For works using Keys other than the European half-tone keys, use them as needed. ("...A𝄳 major")

 

The Movement Framework

Whereas the Work and Opus Framework identifies a work, the Movement Framework identifies the particular movement within a work. This applies even if the work consists only of a single movement.

As the Movement Framework consists of quite a lot of different types of information, it is most simple to conceptualize not as all the individual parts, but as a collection of sub-frameworks. This is how it will be presented below.

Movement Identification
Work Position Movement Container Dramatic Position Form and Tempo Vocalization Common Identification Role Identification

 

Work Position

Movement Identification
Work Position

This sub-framework defines the particular movement of a multi-movement work.
For single-movement works, this area is left unused (though there can be one exception: see item number 3).

The Work Position is always to be indicated using uppercase Roman numerals, never Arabic numerals. Where a movement is split across several sub-movements within the work, not due to physical demands such as multi-tracking, the lowercase Latin alphabet is used, appending one letter for each sub-movment, beginning with the letter "a". Examples:

  • Sonata for Violin (or Flute) & Piano No. 5 in B-flat major, K. 10: I.
  • Sonata for Violin (or Flute) & Piano No. 5 in B-flat major, K. 10: II.
  • Sonata for Violin (or Flute) & Piano No. 5 in B-flat major, K. 10: III.
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIIa.
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIIb.
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIIc.
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIId.

A reference list of Roman numbers is available below.


 

Movement Container

Movement Identification
Movement Container

The container sub-framework is used most frequently within ecclesiastical works. This area stores the title of the work-within-a-work that identifies the overall movement to which sub-movements belong. Provide the title of the container, followed by a full colon (:). Examples:

  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": Ia. Kyrie:
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": Ib. Kyrie:
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIa. Gloria:
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIb. Gloria:
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIIa. Credo:
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIIb. Credo:
  • Mass No. 3 for Soloists, Chorus & Orchestra in C major, K. 66 "Dominicusmesse": IIIc. Credo:

 

Dramatic Position

Movement Identification
Dramatic Position
Act Scene Song Number

This sub-framework normally is used for operas, though other rarer forms may also have need for these fields. The Dramatic Position section stores the Act, Scene, and/or song number within the overall work. These should always be the Act, Scene, and song number as assigned within the original work. If you have a release which reorders scenes, uses insert arias, or makes other changes to the normal order, do not rename the fields within this section; the original running order indications should be preserved. This also means that, when appendix works are inserted within the work, the Appendix indication should remain.

Act and Scene are always to be indicated using uppercased Roman numerals. The sole exception is for "Scene Ultima".
"Act" and "Scene" should be translated into the correct word for the CSG language style being used.

Song numbers should always be indicated using Arabic numerals. The numbers used should always be indicated using Arabic numerals and not spelled out.
"No." is always to be used, untranslated, and never "Nr.", "#", "Number", "N°", etc.

When multiple Acts or Scenes are spanned within the same (sub)movement, they ought to be indicated using an ASCII hyphen separated by one ASCII space on either side ( - ).

Structure:

  • [ Appendix ]. [ Act # ], [ Scene # ]. No. #

In situations where there is an Act, but there is not a Scene, the period ought to be used, omitting the comma:

  • [ Appendix ]. [ Act # ]. No. #

Examples:

  • Ascanio in Alba, K. 111: Act I, Scene IV
  • Così fan tutte ossia La scuola degli amanti, K. *584: Appendix. Act. I, Scene XI No. 15
  • Die Entführung aus dem Serail, K. 384: Appendix.
  • Il sogno di Scipione, K. 126: Act I. No. 1
  • L'oca del Cairo, K. 422: Scene III. No. 1
  • La finta semplice, K. 46a / KV 51: Act I, Scene I. No. 1
  • Lucio Silla, K. 135: Act III, Scene Ultima

A reference list of Roman numbers is available below.


 

Form and Tempo

Movement Identification
Form and Tempo
Form Tempo Form Title
Tempo Tempo Title

This sub-framework stores the form and tempo of a movement.

The Form ought to always have the first word capitalized, with any remaining words capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the form.

Though traditionally Italian tempos have been used, tempos can be any many languages, including French, German, and English. Tempos ought to always have the first word capitalized with any remaining words in a single tempo indication should be capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the tempo. If there is no composer specified tempo for a work, use "(no tempo indication)" without the quotation marks to indicate this absence.

The most basic structure of this sub-framework is:

  • [ Form ]. [ Tempo ]

Examples:

  • Concerto for Piano No. 13 in C major, K. 387b / KV 415: II. Andante
  • Concerto for Piano No. 13 in C major, K. 387b / KV 415: III. Rondeau. Allegro
  • Concerto for Bassoon in B-flat major, K. 186e / KV 191: III. Rondeau. Tempo di menuetto

However, many movements change tempo in the middle of the movement, sometimes multiple times. To indicate a tempo change, add the additional tempo(s) after the initial tempo, and connect them using an ASCII hyphen separated by one ASCII space on either side ( - ). Additional tempos ought to be lowercased.

Structure:

  • [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] - [ tempo ]

Examples:

  • Fugue for Piano in C major, K. 383a / 394: II. Fugue. Andante maestoso - adagio
  • Recitative for Tenor and Orchestra in C major, K. 33i / KV 36: Allegro maestoso - andante - maestoso - allegro - andante - maestoso - andante

In rare cases, you may also have a form which has a common title. This should be capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the title, and contained within standard quotation marks. Note, this position is only for forms with titles, not movement titles.

Structure:

  • [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] - [ tempo ] "[ Form Title ]"

You may then also have multiple forms within a movement. Add each additional form after the tempo of the prior form and connect them using an ampersand separated by one ASCII space on either side ( & ). The first letter of each additional form should be capitalized, with any additional words within the form capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the form.

Structure:

  • [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] - [ tempo ] "[ Form Title ]" & [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] - [ tempo ] "[ Form Title ]"

Examples:

  • 3 German Dances for Orchestra in C major, K. 605 No. 3: German Dance & Trio "Die Schlittenfahrt" & Coda
  • Sonata for Piano No. 6 in D major, K. 205b / KV 284 "Dürnitz": III. Tema. Andante & Variations I - X & Variation XI. Adagio cantabile & Variation XII. Allegro

In the extreme case that you also have tempos within forms which themselves also have titles, the tempo title should be capitalized according to the CapitalizationStandard for the language of the title, and contained within standard quotation marks. It is to be positioned immediately following that specific tempo, and, if that tempo is followed by another tempo, positioned prior to the connecting hyphen.

Structure:

  • [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] "[ Tempo Title ]" - [ tempo ] "[ Tempo Title ]" "[ Form Title ]" & [ Form ]. [ Tempo ] "[ Tempo Title ]" - [ tempo ] "[ Tempo Title ]" "[ Form Title ]"

Example:

  • Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral": IV. Recitative. Presto - allegro ma non troppo - vivace - adagio cantabile - allegro assai - presto "O Freunde" - allegro assai "Freude, schöner Götterfunken" - alla marcia - allegro assai vivace "Froh, wie seine Sonnen" - andante maestoso "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!" - adagio ma non troppo, ma divoto "Ihr, stürzt nieder" - allegro energico, sempre ben marcato "Freude, schöner Götterfunken" - "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!" - allegro ma non tanto "Freude, Tochter aus Elysium!" - prestissimo "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!"

Note that "Recitative and Aria" and "Minuet and Trio" each indicate two sub-movements, not a single form. They ought not to be combined within a single Movement Identification.

Special note on tempos: Please do not 'shorten' them. "Allegro" and "Allegro moderato" are not exactly the same thing.


 

Vocalization

Movement Identification
Vocalization

This sub-framework identifies which voice parts sing within a vocal work.

Each voice part should be proper cased. Where more than one of a voice part is indicated, Arabic numerals are to be used.

Voice parts should be ordered starting with the highest pitch and moving to the lowest. A reference list is available below.

Structure:

  • ([ voicepart1 ], [ voicepart1 ]... )

Examples:

  • Notturno for 3 Voices and 3 Basset Horns in F major, K. 436: Andante. (2 Sopranos, Bass)
  • Kyrie for 4 Voices & Organ (in Figured Bass) in D minor, K. 90: (no tempo indication). (Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass)

 

Common Identification

Movement Identification
Common Identification
Libretto Common Title

This sub-framework is used for one of two purposes. It either stores the libretto or it stores the common title of the movement.

To clarify on the movement common title:

  • It is not the work's common title. Even in a single-movement song, the title of that song is the work title, not the movement title. The correct position for the work title is described in the Work and Opus Framework.
  • It is not the title of only a single form within a multi-form movement. The correct position for such a title is described in the Form and Tempo sub-framework.
  • It is not the title of only a single tempo within a multi-form and/or multi-tempo movement. The correct position for such a title is described in the Form and Tempo sub-framework.
  • Be sure not to confuse the Container title with the movement title. The same text is occasionally both titles.

The libretto title and the movement title are mutually exclusive. Where a work does have a movement title, the libretto title should be omitted.

Structure:

  • "[ libretto/movement common title ]"

Examples:

  • Movement with a libretto only: * Mitridate, rè di Ponto, K. 74a / KV 87: Act I, Scene X. No. 8 Cavata. "Se di lauri il crine adorno" * Canon for 3 Voices in 1 in F major, K. 507: Canon. "Heiterkeit und leichtes Blut" Movement with a libretto only, where the work also has a title: * Song for Solo Voice and Basso continuo in F major, K. 47e / K3 43b / KV 53 "An die Freude": Mäßig. "Freude, Königin der Weisen" * Song for Solo Voice and Piano in D major, K. 125h / KV 148 "Auf die feierliche Johannisloge": Longsam. "O heiliges Band der Freundschaft treuer Brüder" Single-movement work with a libretto and title, libretto omitted due to movement title: * Carol for Female Choir and Piano, EHWV 137 "Christkindleins Wiegenlied": (Sopranos, Altos) "O Jesulein zart"
    • Note: the above example shows an incomplete CSG listing; the key of the work is unknown and unlisted.
    * Kantate, BWV 5 "Wo soll ich fliehen hin": II. Recitativo "Der Sünden Wust hat mich nicht nur befleckt" 
    

    Movement with title, container title, and work title:

    * Requiem in D minor, K. 626 (Süßmayr completion): II. Kyrie: "Kyrie eleison" 
    

    Movement with a title only, Work and Opus framework overridden as there is a composer-assigned work title:

    * Pictures at an Exhibition: IIa. Andante. "The Old Castle" 
    

    Movement with a title and libretto, non-opera Opera special style in effect due to composer-assigned work title, libretto omitted due to movement title:

    * Our Hunting Fathers, Op. 8: IV. "Dance of Death (Hawking for the Partridge)" 
    

 

Role Identification

Movement Identification
Role Identification

This sub-framework identifies which roles perform within a vocal work. Each role name ought to be properly capitalized as a name; non-proper named roles such as Chor, Coro, Choir, Servants, etc ought to be proper cased. Named characters ought to be completely listed before groups (such as "Coro") are listed. Where multiple roles appear, the roles ought to be ordered alphabetically by the first letter of the role name, not the last name: Alice Smith, Fred, Tom Brown, Chorus

Structure:

  • ([ role1, role2, role3... ])

Examples:

  • Così fan tutte ossia La scuola degli amanti, K. 588: Act II, Scene Ultima No. 31 Finale. Allegro molto "Fortunato l'uom che prende" (Despina, Don Alfonso, Dorabella, Fiordiligi, Ferrando, Guglielmo, Chor)
  • Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, K. 527: Act I, Scene VII. No. 5 Coro "Giovinette, che fate all'amore" (Zerlina, Coro)
  • Le nozze di Figaro, K. 492: Act II, Scene II. Recitativo. "Bravo! che bella voce!" (Cherubino, La Contessa, Susanna)

 
What about Insert Arias and other dual-catalogued works?
Movement Identification
Work Position Movement Container Dramatic Position Form and Tempo Vocalization Common Identification Role Identification Dual catalogued works

In some rare cases, most frequently with insert arias to operas, you will find works which appear within the same catalog twice. These present a sticky problem; if they are listed as the individual catalog listing, they will make the release appear to have an unrelated work inserted within it. In such a case, after the Role Identification sub-framework, append an additional sub-framework for the secondary movement catalog number.

Structure:

Examples:

  • Collaboratively composed opera, only the single movement bears the catalog number: * Der Stein der Weisen: Act II. Duett. "Nun, liebes Weibchen" (Lubanara, Lubano) [K. 592a / KV 625] Insert aria contained both within the appendix to the opera and separately cataloged: * Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, K. 527: Anhang. Act I, Scene XIV. No. 10a Aria. "Dalla sua pace" (Don Ottavio) [K. 540a]

 

The Ornamentation Framework

Classical Work
Work and Opus Movement Ornamentation

Ornamentation presents a difficult problem. These are works specifically intended to be inserted into other works. Therefore, to list them as we normally would list a track containing two works, using a / to separate the works, would unintentionally present the appearance that there are two separate works on the track, not a single work which contains the second work.

Therefore, when Ornamentation, or its sub-types, Cadences, Cadenzas, and Eingänge [1] appear, the following form is to used:

  • ([ Type ]: [ Composer ], [ Catalog or Opus Number ] [ Work Number within the Opus or Catalog Number ], [ Version ])

Examples:

  • (Cadenza: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 626aI/31 / KV 624/9, Version A)
  • (Cadence: Ludwig van Beethoven, WoO 58 No. 2)
  • (Eingänge: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 626aI/55)
  • (Ornamentation Cadenza: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 293e / KV deest)
  • (Trumpet and Drum Ornamentation: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 370a / KV deest)

Note that, as ornamentation is by definition interchangeable, only the ornamentation framework will be listed within works lists. How to apply ornamentation to track titles is covered in Applying CSG Titles to Tracks.



Special Frameworks

Special Framework under CSG for Da capos and Dal segnos

dacapo.png segno.png File:dalsegno.png File:coda.png
Da capo Segno Dal segno Coda

Da capos come in three common variations:

  • Da capo
  • Repeat the specified section of the work.
  • Da capo al fine
  • Repeat the entire work.
  • Da capo al segno
  • Repeat from the beginning through to the segno sign.

Dal segnos come in two common variations:

  • Dal segno al Coda
  • Repeat from the segno to the coda sign then play the coda.
  • Dal segno al Fine
  • Repeat from the segno through to the end of the work.

These are commonly found accompanying Minuets, Trios, and at the end of Serenades.

    • How do we handle them? ** ** STUFF **

 

Special Framework under CSG for Operas

Operas are handled a bit differently than other works. Were they to be formatted using the standard structure, a large amount of redundant information would be added to the title, making it appear cluttered rather than structured.

In a title for an opera, the Movement and Ornamentation frameworks follow the standard structure described above. However, the Work and Opus framework is restructured.

Opera Work and Opus Identification
Opera Name Catalog / Opus Number No. (3)

Note that this is almost the same as the standard Movement framework, except that most of that framework's structure is unused. The sole structural difference between the Opera Work and Opus framework and the standard Work and Opus framework is that instead of:

  • , K. 492 "Le nozze di Figaro"
  • , Op. 8 Our Hunting Fathers

this special structure instead creates:

  • Le nozze di Figaro, K. 492
  • Our Hunting Fathers, Op. 8

Note as well that in the Opera special framework, the opera's name is not enclosed within quotation marks.

It is also worth mentioning again that in the Dramatic Position section of the Movement framework, though "Act" and "Scene" should be translated into the correct word for the CSG language style being used, "No." should not be translated.

Ballet Music

Ballet music normally falls well within the normal CSG structure. However, in some rare cases, it can present difficulties. At one time, short ballets were performed between the acts of operas and other similar musical theater presentations. While most of these have not survived, some rare ones have, and continue to be performed and recorded today.

When such a work is encountered, should the normal CSG structure fail to well fit the work, the special Opera style described above may be used in conjunction with the special style for Variations of Other Works, prefixing the music with "Ballet Music for" in the CSG language style being used for the work.

Example:

  • The listing for the opera would be: * Idomeneo, rè di Creta, K. 366 The listing for the ballet music composed for that opera, thus would be: * Ballet Music for Idomeneo, rè di Creta, K. 366, in B-flat major, K. 367: III. Passepied

 

Special Framework under CSG for Variations within Movements

Variations can potentially lead to needlessly long titles. Rather than include each and every variation, where variations do not have tempo changes, link them with a hyphen ( - ). Example:

  • Sonata for Piano No. 6 in D major, K. 205b / KV 284 "Dürnitz": III. Tema. Andante & Variations I - X & Variation XI. Adagio cantabile & Variation XII. Allegro

 

Work Condition or Version Information

Well-known works will rarely need much, if any additional information to be provided. Some more obscure works, however, may need such information - identifications such as "Appendix", "fragment", "sketch", "original version", "spurious", "doubtful", completion-related information, etc.

Such information may be located in one of two places.

The first has already been described, in the Dramatic Position section, and indicates that a movement of a theatrical work is part of the appendix, not part the normal running of the theatrical work.

Work and Opus Identification
Work Type No. (1 & 4) Instrumentation No. (2) Key Scale Catalog / Opus Number No. (3 & 4) (Work Condition / Version Note) "Common Name"

The second is not included directly as part of any one framework, as such version or work condition information may apply to an entire work, or it may apply only to a single movement within a work. It may be that the entire work is considered spurious, or it may be that one movement from a work has only survived as a fragment. Whichever is the case, when such information needs to be included, we ask that you keep it as short as possible, include it within parenthesis, and place it between the Numbered work of a Work Catalog / Opus Number section and the Common Name section within the Work and Opus Framework.

Except where names are involved, all such note information should be lowercased.

Examples:

  • Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D major, K. 271i / K2 271a / KV K2271a (doubtful): I. Allegro maestoso
  • Sonata for Keyboard with 4 Hands in G major, K. 497a/KV 357/1 (Julius André completion): Allegro
  • Suite for Piano in C major, K. 385i / 399 Fr 1782i (5.5 measure fragment): IV. Sarabande
  • Symphony No. 3 for Orchestra in E-flat major, K. Anh A 51 / K3 Anh 109i / KV 18 (spurious): I. Molto allegro

 

Punctuation Within CSG Titles

Standard ASCII punctuation should always be used for the space , the full-colon :, the semi-colon ;, the hyphen-minus -, single quotation marks ' ', double quotation marks " ", parenthesis ( ), square braces [ ], commas ,, periods ., and all other punctuation with a CSG title.

GUIDELINE CURRENTLY UNDER DEBATE

If French CSG is being used, the additional punctuation spacing rules of CapitalizationStandardFrench also apply.


 

Applying CSG Titles to Tracks

Because of the FundamentalMismatchOfMusicBrainzEntitiesAndReality, you will find one of three cases when using CSG titles:

  1. Each movement (or work, for single-movement works) has its own track: Use the movement or work title as the track title. Example:
    • Canon for 3 Voices in 1 in F major, K. 507: Canon. "Heiterkeit und leichtes Blut"
  1. A track includes two or more movements (or single-movement works): Use a standard ASCII forward slash with a single standard ASCII space on each side ( / ) to separate the works. Where each movement is from the same overall work, the work identification ought to be omitted where it would be redundant. If the works are by different composers, TracksWithMultipleArtists would apply as normal. Examples:
    • Canon for 3 Voices in 1 in F major, K. 507: Canon. "Heiterkeit und leichtes Blut" / Canon for 3 Voices in 1 in F major, K. 508: Canon. "Auf das Wohl aller Freunde"
    • Symphony No. 41 in C major, K. 551 "Jupiter": I. Allegro vivace / II. Andante cantable
    • Symphony No. 38 in D major, K. 504 "Prague": II. Andante / Johann Sebastian Bach - Suite für Violoncello solo No. 6 D-Dur, BWV 1012: Courante
  1. A single movement (or single-movement work) is split across two or more tracks: List the movement in each track as if it were the entire movement. In the Work Position area of each track, append a hyphen and lowercase Roman numeral to indicate which part of the split teach track is. If the movement is a single-movement work without a movement indication, omit the hyphen. Examples:
    1. A split single-movement work:
      1. Canon for 3 Voices in 1 in F major, K. 507: i. Canon. "Heiterkeit und leichtes Blut"
      2. Canon for 3 Voices in 1 in F major, K. 507: ii. Canon. "Heiterkeit und leichtes Blut"
    1. Multi-movement work with a split movement:
      1. Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral": IV-i. Recitative. Presto - allegro ma non troppo - vivace - adagio cantabile
      2. Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral": IV-ii. Allegro assai - presto "O Freunde" - allegro assai "Freude, schöner Götterfunken"
      3. Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral": IV-iii. Alla marcia - allegro assai vivace "Froh, wie seine Sonnen"
      4. Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral": IV-iv. Andante maestoso "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!"
      5. Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral": IV-v. Adagio ma non troppo, ma divoto "Ihr, stürzt nieder"
      6. Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral": IV-v. Allegro energico, sempre ben marcato "Freude, schöner Götterfunken"
      7. Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral": IV-vi. "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!"
      8. Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral": IV-vii. Allegro ma non tanto "Freude, Tochter aus Elysium!"
      9. Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral": IV-viii. Prestissimo "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!"
    1. Multi-movement work with a split sub-movement:
      1. Requiem in D minor, K. 626 (Süßmayr completion): IIIe-i. Sequenz: "Confutatis"
      2. Requiem in D minor, K. 626 (Süßmayr completion): IIIe-ii. Sequenz: "Confutatis"
      3. Requiem in D minor, K. 626 (Süßmayr completion): IIIe-iii. Sequenz: "Confutatis"

How to Apply Ornamentation to Track Titles:

The proper style for ornamentation is listed within the Ornamentation Framework. As defined there, ornamentation works are to be listed as:

  • (Cadenza: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 626aI/31 / KV 624/9, Version A)
  • (Cadence: Ludwig van Beethoven, WoO 58 No. 2)

To list such ornamentation within a track title, if only one ornamentation work is used, simply append it to the end of the track title. Examples:

  • Concerto for Piano No. 12 in A major, K. 385p / K3 386a / KV 414: II. Andante (Cadenza: K. 626aI/31 / KV 624/9, Version A)
  • Concerto for Piano No. 20 in D minor, K. 466: III. Rondo. Allegro assai (Cadence: Ludwig van Beethoven, WoO 58 No. 2)

When applying ornamentation to a track title, omit redundant information. Thus, note in the above example, "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart" was omitted, as he was also the composer of the work being ornamented, while "Ludwig van Beethoven" was retained, as he was not the composer of the work being ornamented.

To list multiple ornamentation works for the same track, append them as Ornamentation, Cadenza, Eingänge, and separate them with a semi-colon separated on each side by one ASCII space ( ; ). Again, omit redundant information. Examples:

  • Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 1 in B-flat major, K. 207: I. Allegro moderato (Cadenzas: Jean-Delphin Alard; Martin Wulfhorst; Eingänge: Jean-Delphin Alard; Martin Wulfhorst)
  • Concerto for French Horn No. 2 in E-flat major, K. 417: II. Andante (Eingänge: Timothy Brown; Dominic Nunns)
  • Concerto for Piano No. 18 in B-flat major, K. 456 "Paradis": I. Allegro vivace (Cadenzas: K. 626aI/52 / KV deest, Version A; K. 626aI/54 / KV 624/27, Version C; Eingänge: K. 626aI/55)

All tracks containing ornamentation by composers other than the composer of the ornamented work ought to also be added to the listing in TracksWithMultipleArtists.

The Release Language for a Classical Release

The Release Language setting for a release should reflect the language used for the CSG titles. It does not reflect the language spoken or sung on the release, nor any of the specific languages found on the liner for any given release of the same recording.

What Advanced Relationships (ARs) ought to always be set for a classical release?

When adding a classical release, you are encouraged, as always, to set all ARs possible. However, even if you don't set any other ARs, we do ask that you always set the performer, conductor, and chorus master ARs for each work. If a release you are adding includes arrangements of classical works, please also always set the arranger AR.

Reasoning: For any given classical release, it is quite likely that there are several other releases containing the same works in the same order; if these basic ARs are not set, the release is essentially a 'blank' listing. Such unidentified 'blank' listings have a bad tendency to become full of PUIDs, TRMs, CD TOCs, and other data from a range of unrelated releases. Setting these basic identifying ARs allows the users of the database to identify that the releaser you are adding is not, in fact, the one that they want, both avoiding inaccurate data being added, and potentially leading to more releases being added, both of which benefit the data-health of the database.

At the release level or at the track level?

While there will always be those ARs which do belong at the release level, performer, composer, conductor, chorus master, and other related ARs should always be set at the track level if you have sufficient data to be able to be that specific. If an artist performs on all tracks, please set such ARs on all tracks rather than just setting a single AR for the release.

Resources

Keys and scales in commonly used languages

English French German Italian Russian Spanish
A major La majeur A-Dur La maggiore Ля мажор La mayor
A-flat major La bémol majeur As-Dur La bemolle maggiore Ля диез мажор La bemol mayor
A-sharp major La dièse majeur Ais-Moll La diesis maggiore Ля бемоль мажор La sostenido mayor
A minor la mineur a-Moll la minore Ля минор la menor
A-flat minor la bémol mineur as-Moll la bemolle minore Ля диез минор la bemol menor
A-sharp minor la dièse mineur ais-Moll la diesis minore Ля бемоль минор la sostenido menor
B major Si majeur H-Dur Si maggiore Си мажор Si mayor
B-flat major Si bémol majeur B-Dur Si bemolle maggiore Си бемоль мажор Si bemol mayor
B-sharp major Si dièse majeur His-Dur Si diesis maggiore Си диез мажор Si sostenido mayor
B minor si mineur h-Moll si minore Си минор si menor
B-flat minor si bémol mineur b-Moll si bemolle minore Си бемоль минор si bemol menor
B-sharp minor si dièse mineur his-Moll si diesis minore Си диез минор si sostenido menor
C major Ut majeur C-Dur Do maggiore До мажор Do mayor
C-flat major Ut bémol majeur Ces-Dur Do bemolle maggiore До бемоль мажор Do bemol mayor
C-sharp major Ut dièse majeur Cis-Dur Do diesis maggiore До диез мажор Do sostenido mayor
C minor ut mineur c-Moll do minore До минор do menor
C-flat minor ut bémol mineur ces-Moll do bemolle minore До бемоль минор do bemol menor
C-sharp minor ut dièse mineur cis-Moll do diesis minore До диез минор do sostenido menor
D major Ré majeur D-Dur Re maggiore Ре мажор Re mayor
D-flat major Ré bémol majeur Des-Dur Re bemolle maggiore Ре бемоль мажор Re bemol mayor
D-sharp major Ré dièse majeur dis-Dur Re diesis maggiore Ре диез мажор Re sostenido mayor
D minor ré mineur d-Moll re minore Ре минор re menor
D-flat minor ré bémol mineur des-Moll re bemolle minore Ре бемоль минор re bemol menor
D-sharp minor ré dièse mineur dis-Moll re diesis minore Ре диез минор re sostenido menor
E major Mi majeur E-Dur Mi maggiore Ми мажор Mi mayor
E-flat major Mi bémol majeur Es-Dur Mi bemolle maggiore Ми бемоль мажор Mi bemol mayor
E-sharp major Mi dièse majeur Eis-Dur Mi diesis maggiore Ми диез мажор Mi sostenido mayor
E minor mi mineur e-Moll mi minore Ми минор mi menor
E-flat minor mi bémol mineur es-Moll mi bemolle minore Ми бемоль минор mi bemol menor
E-sharp minor mi dièse mineur eis-Moll mi diesis minore Ми диез минор mi sostenido menor
F major Fa majeur F-Dur Fa maggiore Фа мажор Fa mayor
F-flat major Fa bémol majeur Fes-Dur Fa bemolle maggiore Фа бемоль мажор Fa bemol mayor
F-sharp major Fa dièse majeur Fis-Dur Fa diesis maggiore Фа диез мажор Fa sostenido mayor
F minor fa mineur f-Moll fa minore Фа минор fa menor
F-flat minor fa bémol mineur fes-Moll fa bemolle minore Фа бемоль минор fa bemol menor
F-sharp minor fa dièse mineur fis-Moll fa diesis minore Фа диез минор fa sostenido menor
G major Sol majeur G-Dur Sol maggiore Соль мажор Sol mayor
G-flat major Sol bémol majeur Ges-Dur Sol bemolle maggiore Соль бемоль мажор Sol bemol mayor
G-sharp major Sol dièse majeur Gis-Dur Sol diesis maggiore Соль диез мажор Sol sostenido mayor
G minor sol mineur g-Moll sol minore Соль минор sol menor
G-flat minor sol bémol mineur ges-Moll sol bemolle minore Соль бемоль минор sol bemol menor
G-sharp minor sol dièse mineur gis-Moll sol diesis minore Соль диез минор sol sostenido menor

Roman numerals from 0 to 125

CSG uses the simplified Roman numerals system. While no work is ever actually expected to have a sufficient number of works for it to matter, should a work with 499 or more movements ever be written, movement 499 would be indicated as ID, not CDXCIX, LDVLIV, XDIX, or VDIV.

0 N 21 XXI 42 XLII 63 LXIII 84 LXXXIV 105 CV
1 I 22 XXII 43 XLIII 64 LXIV 85 LXXXV 106 CVI
2 II 23 XXIII 44 XLIV 65 LXV 86 LXXXVI 107 CVII
3 III 24 XXIV 45 XLV 66 LXVI 87 LXXXVII 108 CVIII
4 IV 25 XXV 46 XLVI 67 LXVII 88 LXXXVIII 109 CIX
5 V 26 XXVI 47 XLVII 68 LXVIII 89 LXXXIX 110 CX
6 VI 27 XXVII 48 XLVIII 69 LXIX 90 XC 111 CXI
7 VII 28 XXVIII 49 XLIX 70 LXX 91 XCI 112 CXII
8 VIII 29 XXIX 50 L 71 LXXI 92 XCII 113 CXIII
9 IX 30 XXX 51 LI 72 LXXII 93 XCIII 114 CXIV
10 X 31 XXXI 52 LII 73 LXXIII 94 XCIV 115 CXV
11 XI 32 XXXII 53 LIII 74 LXXIV 95 XCV 116 CXVI
12 XII 33 XXXIII 54 LIV 75 LXXV 96 XCVI 117 CXVII
13 XIII 34 XXXIV 55 LV 76 LXXVI 97 XCVII 118 CXVIII
14 XIV 35 XXXV 56 LVI 77 LXXVII 98 XCVIII 119 CXIX
15 XV 36 XXXVI 57 LVII 78 LXXVIII 99 XCIX 120 CXX
16 XVI 37 XXXVII 58 LVIII 79 LXXIX 100 C 121 CXXI
17 XVII 38 XXXVIII 59 LIX 80 LXXX 101 CI 122 CXXII
18 XVIII 39 XXXIX 60 LX 81 LXXXI 102 CII 123 CXXIII
19 XIX 40 XL 61 LXI 82 LXXXII 103 CIII 124 CXXIV
20 XX 41 XLI 62 LXII 83 LXXXIII 104 CIV 125 CXXV

While it is quite true that the original Roman numeral system did not have a zero, fortunately, in those rare cases where a Roman zero is needed, just such a numeral indicaton was added to the simplified roman numeral system in 725 AD.

Vocal Classifications

Ordered from highest pitched to lowest pitched:

  1. Soprano
  2. Castrato
  3. Sopranist
  4. Dugazon
  5. Falcon
  6. Mezzo-soprano
  7. Alto I
  8. Alto II
  9. Haute-contre
  10. Countertenor
  11. Contralto
  12. Tenor I
  13. Tenor II
  14. Baritenor
  15. Baritone
  16. Bass-baritone
  17. Bass
  18. Contrabass
  1. Eingänge, also "Eingang" is a term used primarily by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven to describe a shorter fermata embellishment versus a normal Cadenza. While cadenzas traditionally contain modulation and are placed over a tonic six-four chord, Eingänge avoid modulation and are indicated by a fermata over a dominant seventh chord. While cadenzas typically fall within a Form, eingänge typically are used to lead from one Form into a new Form. Eingänge will specifically be named as such a form by the composer. The term "Lead-in" may also be used to describe an Eingänge.